<b>Prospective Teacher Concerns: A Comparative Study of Departments of English Language Teaching and Language and Literature</b>
Keywords:teacher concerns, prospective teacher, ELT, language and literature
Language teachers in Turkey do not take a standard pre-service education as graduates of English Language Teaching (ELT), linguistics, and translation departments all end up with language teaching profession and this, in turn, results in different teaching needs and concerns. The researchers argue that these different concerns may be one of the underlying causes of chronic language education problems in Turkey, in that Turkish Ministry of National Education does not take into consideration the comparative picture of practicing teachers and composes curricula, teaching materials, and compulsory one-shot professional development activities that all reflect one size fits all ideology. Therefore, determining the needs and concerns of pre-service language teachers is of vital importance. The current study has arisen from Griffith’s (2012) call for more larger-scale studies on teacher concerns across different contexts via triangulation. The researchers aim at not only investigating teacher concerns but also painting a much detailed comparative picture between ELT and linguistics department prospective teachers. The researchers target convenience sampling, in the full knowledge that this group will not represent the whole population. However, this type of non-probability sampling can serve well when it is easy to gather much informative data. Building on the recent work of Griffiths (2012), the researchers have modified and extended the existing measurement tool of Griffiths (2012) to investigate the issue much deeper and compensate the caveats. They adapted her instrument and asked the participants to add their thoughts as well as deciding their concern level. The results are mainly in line with the referred study in terms of the rating and frequency. The study reveals that there are some differences between the concerns of ELT department students and language and literature department students. While prospective teachers studying at the ELTdepartment were found to be highly concerned about technology, their counterparts studying at the langauge and literature department were not interested in the issue. The study also reveals that despite EIL’s large space in the literature (Cogo, 2012; Sowden, 2012), it was not found as a major concern for the prospective teachers. Methodology was also the least rated concern for the prospective teachers at both departments on the contrary to the well-accepted literature.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY: Freeman
Boz, Y., & Boz, N. (2010). The nature of the relationship between teaching concerns and
sense of efficacy. European Journal of Teacher Education, 33(3), 279-291.
Breiteneder, A. (2009). English as a lingua franca in Europe: an empirical perspective. World
Englishes, 28(2), 256–69.
Cabaroğlu, N. (2012). Prospectıve EFLteachers’ perceptions of classroom management and
misbehaviour. Cukurova University Faculty of Education Journal, 41(1), 117-132.
Cakiroglu, J., Cakiroglu, E. & W.J. Boone. (2005). Pre-service teacher self-efficacy beliefs
regarding science teaching: A comparison of pre-service teachers in Turkey and the USA.
Science Educator, 14, 31–40.
Canagarajah, S. (2007). Lingua franca English, multilingual communities, and acquisition.
The Modern Language Journal, 91, 923-939.
Cogo, A. (2012). English as a Lingua Franca : Concepts, use and implications. ELT Journal,
Cohen, L., Manion, L. & Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education (6th ed). New
York, NY: Routledge.
Çelik, M. (2008). Pre-service EFL teachers’ reported concerns and stress for practicum in
Turkey. Education and Science, 33(150), 97-109.
De Graaff, R. and Housen, A. (2009). Investigating the Effects and Effectiveness of L2
Instruction. In M. H. Long & Doughty C. J. (Eds), The Handbook of Language
Teaching.Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
De Jong, O., Ahtee, M., Goodwin, A. (1999). An international study of prospective teachers’
initial teaching conceptions and concerns: the case of teaching ‘combustion’. European
Journal of Teacher Education , 22(1), 45-59.
Donaghue, H. (2003). An instrument to elicit teachers’ beliefs and assumptions. ELT Journal,
Flynt, E. S., & Brozo, W. (2010). Visual literacy and the content classroom: A question of
now, not when. The Reading Teacher, 63(6), 526–528.
Griffiths, C. (2012). Focus on the teacher. ELT Journal, 66(4), 468-476.
Guillaume, A. M., & Rudney, G. L. (1993). Student teachers’ growth toward independence:
An analysis of their changing concerns. Teaching and Teacher Education, 9(1), 65-80.
Jenkins, J. (2009). English as a lingua franca: interpretations and attitudes. World Englishes,
Karatas, S. (2010) The analysis of computer education and instructional technologies
prospective teachers’ mind maps relating to their profession (The Case of Gazi University) .
Ahi Evran Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi,11(1), 159-173.
Kirkgoz, Y. (2005) English language teaching in Turkey: Challenges for the 21st century. In
G . Braine (ed.) Teaching English to the World: History, Curriculum, and Practice (pp. 159–
. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Kırkgöz, Y. (2007). Language planning and implementation in Turkish primary schools.
Current Issues in Language Planning, 8(2), 174-191
Krippendorff, K. (2004). Content Analysis: An Introduction to Its Methodology (2nd ed.).
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
Kyriacou, C., & Stephens, P. (1999). Student teachers’ concerns during teaching practice.
Evaluation and Research in Education, 13(1), 18-31.
Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and principles in language teaching (2nd ed).
Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lin, H., J. Gorrell, and J. Taylor. (2002). Influence of culture and education on US and
Taiwan preservice teachers’ efficacy beliefs. The Journal of Educational Research, 96(1), 37–
Mau, R. Y. (1997). Concerns of student teachers: implications for improving the practicum.
Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 25(1), 53-65.
Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital Immigrants. On the Horizon, 9(5).
Robson, C. (1993). Real world research: A resource for social scientists and practitioerresearchers.Oxford:
Seidlhofer, B. (2004). Research perspectives on teaching English as a lingua franca. Annual
Review of Applied Linguistics, 24, 209-239.
Seidlhofer, B. (2005). English as a lingua franca. ELT Journal, 59(4), 339-341.
Sowden, C. (2012). ELF on a mushroom: the overnight growth in English as a Lingua Franca.
ELT Journal, 66(1), 89-96. doi:10.1093/elt/ccr024
Swennen, A., Jörg, T., & Korthagen, F. (2004). Studying student teachers’ concerns,
combining image-based and more traditional research techniques. European Journal of
Teacher Education, 27(3), 265-283.
Wyatt, M. (2011). Overcoming low self-efficacy beliefs in teaching English to young
learners. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 26(2), 238-255.
Yaylı, L, & Hasirci, S. (2009). Concerns of prospective teachers of Turkish on teaching The
Journal of International Social Research, 2(9), 519-526.
How to Cite
LicenseAll papers licensed under Creative Commons 4.0 CC-BY.
- Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format
- Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially.
Under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
- No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.