Journal of History Culture and Art Research <div id="cfptitle"> </div><div> </div><div> </div> Karabuk University en-US Journal of History Culture and Art Research 2147-0626 All papers licensed under Creative Commons 4.0 CC-BY. <div>You are free to:</div><ul class="license-properties"><li class="license share">Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format</li><li class="license remix">Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially.</li></ul><div><div id="deed-conditions" class="row"><h3>Under the following terms:</h3><ul class="license-properties col-md-offset-2 col-md-8" dir="ltr"><li class="license by"><p>Attribution — You must give <a id="appropriate_credit_popup" class="helpLink" title="" href="" data-original-title="">appropriate credit</a>, provide a link to the license, and <a id="indicate_changes_popup" class="helpLink" title="" href="" data-original-title="">indicate if changes were made</a>. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.</p></li></ul></div><div class="row"><ul id="deed-conditions-no-icons" class="col-md-offset-2 col-md-8"><li class="license">No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or <a id="technological_measures_popup" class="helpLink" title="" href="" data-original-title="">technological measures</a> that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.</li></ul></div></div> Identifying the Value of Traditional Cultural Landscape in Rural Settlements <p>The traditions, socio-economic conditions, habitational settings and the climatic factors of a society become stratified with the cultural values ​​and establish the current values of the cultural landscape. The significance of a rural landscape as cultural heritage is directly related to the existence of cultural values and cultural landscape, which constitutes the totality of the cultural values ​​should be preserved in order to ensure historical and cultural sustainability. The study area (Şavşat/Artvin, Turkey) has a rich value based on its cultural landscape and texture, given its rich biodiversity and the lifestyle of different cultures that shaped the traditional settlement. Certain routes were determined within the scope of the present study, with the aim to encompass the whole Şavşat. A method based on an inventory study was employed to analyze the 39 rural settlements and the values of the traditional cultural landscape ​​were quantified through scoring 8 parameters based on the existence or nonexistence of cultural values. The 5-point scoring was ranged as follows: very low, low, medium, high and very high. Based on this scoring, Yavuz village, Kocabey, Kirazlı, Kayadibi, Çoraklı, Şavşat Center, Ilıca, Maden were found have high, Cevizli, Maden, Köprülü and Çağlayan were found to have very high values for the cultural landscape. Consequently, it was indicated that identifying the values of the traditional cultural landscape through the scoring system based on the existence and nonexistence of cultural values with respect to certain parameters could contribute to the literature. It was considered that the findings of the present study could provide an important database in the regional/sub-regional scale for the conservation of cultural values with natural landscape resources and conveying these values to future generations.</p> Aslıhan Tırnakçı Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of History Culture and Art Research 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 10 1 1 15 10.7596/taksad.v10i1.2814 The Need for Efficiency of Energy Sources Management in Sustainable Architecture <p>With the industrialization of the world, energy resources need management more than anything else. Because today we live in an energy-dependent world, we need energy to generate heat and cold, to create light, to start car engines, to run factory gears, to harvest crops, and so on. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the need for efficiency of energy sources management in sustainable architecture was conducted. In this research, a descriptive-analytical method has been used to look at the concept of energy resources management and sustainable development and their relationship, to study renewable energy sources in Iran and to propose proposed solutions in this regard. The results show that energy management requires the presentation of policies by managers of a country and also requires public education at the community level. Achieving sustainable development also requires access to sustainable energy sources that non-renewable energy and fossil fuels are not suitable sources in this regard due to unsustainability, but renewable energy will remain for future generations if used, unlike fossil fuels. They will not lead to pollution and global warming. Undoubtedly, by replacing renewable energies with non-renewable energies, the steps taken towards sustainable development will become stronger. In addition to these issues, the epidemic and the increase in the number of victims and victims of the Covid-19 virus, which led to the closure of oil fields, refineries, mines, etc., was another blow to the managers and officials of countries to find out more than ever the only solution to these problems is referring to renewable energy.</p> Amirali Razzaghipour Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of History Culture and Art Research 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 10 1 16 27 10.7596/taksad.v10i1.2952 The Study and Analysis of The Prevailing Elements and Patterns in The Background of The Works of Mirzababa, A Qajar Painter <p>The Qajar period is the beginning of many important and long-lasting developments in Iran's contemporary era. Among these developments, we should mention the changes in Iranian arts and the aspects that these arts had with them. Planning and backgrounding were among the aspects that entered Iranian painting with the entrance of Western art elements. Mirzababa was one of the most important painters of the first Qajar period, and the way he used these elements became an unwritten and frequently used pattern among artists. The purpose of the present article is to analyze the background of his works and to understand his backgrounding. The research is a theoretical and a descriptive-analytical research. The statistical population of the research consists of the works of Mirzababa and because the number of works that have reached us is limited, the sample size is all of his works. The research data show that Mirzababa had been backgrounding according to the type of art or used medium. Backgrounds have a general pattern or contractual elements that have an interior, exterior, or a combination of both spaces rather than the used medium.</p> Reihaneh Keshtgar Ghasemi Morteza Asadi Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of History Culture and Art Research 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 10 1 28 41 10.7596/taksad.v10i1.2941 Foundations of Pension Legislation in Russia, France, and Great Britain: An Investigation on Political Doctrines in the 17-20th Centuries <p>The article considers the process of forming conceptual foundations of pension legislation in Russia, France, and Great Britain. The scientists of 17-18th centuries substantiated the right to life and human dignity as the most important human rights. Later, in 19-20th centuries, the right to a dignified existence, the right to assistance from the state in case of disability were formulated. The need for the livelihood of the elderly was recognized by most authors, however, there were serious discrepancies regarding the methods for provision and sources of financing payments. The article considers the pension laws adopted in Great Britain, France, and Russia in the first half of the 20th century that reflected the above concepts anyway. The French pension legislation has embodied the insurance model of pension security and was strongly influenced by Bismarck legislation, while the British one reflected the legislator’s desire to abandon the extremes of the ideology of individualism and ‘self-help’ through the introduction of state budget pensions. In Russia, the origin of compulsory social insurance took place almost simultaneously with Western European countries; however, this process was broken by the revolutionary events of 1917. As a result, a state budgetary pension system was created in Soviet Russia. The author comes to the conclusion about the mutual influence of various models of pension protection, legalized in the first half of the 20th century in the countries under consideration, as well as the special role of social solidarity concepts and the generational contract for the formation of these models.</p> <p> </p> Anna Victorovna Aleksandrova Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of History Culture and Art Research 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 10 1 42 58 10.7596/taksad.v10i1.2943 The Effect of Psychodrama on Women's Codependence, Self-Realization and Problem Solving Skill Perception <p>The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of psychodrama on the codependency, self-actualization and problem-solving skills of women attending Public Education Center Tailoring Courses. The study was conducted with the quasi-experimental design based on the pretest-posttest model with an experimental group. Fifteen volunteering women attending tailoring courses at Malatya Battalgazi District Public Education Center during the 2015-2016 academic year participated in the study. The study data were collected with the Composite Codependency Scale, Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile, and Problem-Solving Inventory. These three scales were applied to the study group before the application. After the pre-test, a psychodrama group study that included 18 sessions was conducted with eight women in the study group. At the end of the application, the scales were applied as post-test measurements to the study group. To test the effectiveness of the experimental process, the dependent samples t test technique was used. The comparison of the study group pretest and posttest scores revealed a significant difference between pretest and posttest self-actualization scores; however, there was no significant difference between codependency, interpersonal control, self-sacrifice, suppression of emotions, and problem-solving skill perception pretest and posttest scores. Thus, it was observed that psychodrama had a significant effect on the improvement of the self-actualization levels of participating women; however, it did not have a significant effect on the reduction of their negative perceptions about problem-solving skills and codependency levels.</p> Yağmur Ulusoy Bircan Kırlangıç Şimşek Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of History Culture and Art Research 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 10 1 59 73 10.7596/taksad.v10i1.2482 Identity Crisis in Arab Diasporic Novel: A Case Study of Lebanese American Novel <p>Very little has been written on cultural identity and national identity in contemporary Lebanese novel in the diaspora. This study explores how border identity is presented in Rabih Alameddine's <em>Koolaids</em> (1998), <em>I, the Divine </em>(2001), and <em>The Angel of History </em>(2016), three novels about the failure of the Lebanese immigrants to establish their cultural identity in the diaspora. It also gives a bird's-eye view of the myriad problems encountered by the immigrants while trying to build their cultural identity. Rabih Alameddine, a Lebanese American writer whose early literary pursuits focus on melting in the new homeland, represents the impossibility of redefinition and introduces the immigrants' remarkable preoccupation with the quest for national identity and nationhood. He mixes melancholic and ridiculous moments to represent the quest for cultural identity in order to subvert the neo-orientalist discourse which is based on the East/West dichotomy. Moreover, the use of multiple settings and narrators in each novel is also a common theme that explains the physical and psychological effects of the Lebanese civil war and the Lebanese ethnic categories in the diaspora.</p> Mubarak Altwaiji Ebrahim Mohammed Alwuraafi Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of History Culture and Art Research 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 10 1 74 83 10.7596/taksad.v10i1.3008 Evaluation of Eurovision Song Contest as a Cultural Impact Tool <p>In this study, three claims/arguments regarding the emergence and function of the Eurovision Song Contest were put forward and tried to be grounded. First, the contest emerged as a tool for Western Europe to influence Eastern Europe culturally in the Cold War but it didn’t become an ideological conflict area of East-West. Second, the contest functioned as a stage of expressing the political problems/situations that countries experience within themselves or with each other in the Cold War era and aftermath. Third, although Turkey took place in the Western Europe side in the Cold War, this contest made Turkey feel non-European while having a different identity. In this context, the subject is discussed from the historical perspective with the assumption that the subject of history is unique. The study focused primarily on the concept of the Cold War and the contest. Then, it was explained with the examples which political problems/situations different from the Cold War ideological conflict environment were brought up on the contest platform. Finally, it was emphasized that the contest contributed to “us vs them” dichotomy in Turkey against Europe, contrary to Eurovision’s aim to form/create a common European culture.</p> Umut Bekcan Pınar Uz Hançarlı Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of History Culture and Art Research 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 10 1 84 97 10.7596/taksad.v10i1.3009 The Models of Auto-Confessional Author <p>A discussion that used a theoretical discourse as opposed to the discourse used by positivism began in the second half of the past century with the focus on the issue of the author in literature. The search for the author by the method of looking for him/her in between the lines was evident in literary theories, especially after Roland Barthes’ eminent essay <em>The Death of the Author</em> (written in 1968). Afterwards, the issue of the author was regarded by European and Anglo-American schools as an issue to be discovered within the text either as the presence of the narrator or the author, or as an explicit presence as an auto-confessional author. Being of such an explicit nature, it is not unexpected that the auto-confessional author has oftentimes been neglected. Upon this consideration, the auto-confessional author is the object of this paper that aims to set about a theoretical and conceptual confrontation with the purpose of framing a model of the auto-confessional author and his manifestation in literature.</p> Agron Y. Gashi Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of History Culture and Art Research 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 10 1 98 104 10.7596/taksad.v10i1.3010 Diasporic Pariah: A Study of Bessie Head’s Maru <p>Home is a very important notion in human life which helps people establish emotional, social and intellectual belonging and identifications so that they can hold on to life. When the sense of home is contested, the sense of identity is impaired too. Those people who are characterized by the sense of disconnectedness and desire to re-establish their home are known as diasporic people. The protagonist of <em>Maru</em> (1971), Margaret is one of those diasporic people who long for home and attachments to people. This article is an attempt to examine the struggle of Margaret against a ruthless and cruel society. In her status as a diasporic individual, Margaret is seen as a nonhuman being due to her race, as a Masarwa, living in Botswana. She is alienated, and treated as a pariah, because she does not belong to a superior race defined by the colonial British forces which ruled Botswana. The article tries to view the protagonist’s estrangement and her experience as a diasporic pariah through the lenses of some of the famous postcolonial critics and writers.&nbsp; It also tries to explore the origins and aspects of this kind of treatment.</p> Harith Ismael Turki Zeliha Işık Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of History Culture and Art Research 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 10 1 105 112 10.7596/taksad.v10i1.3011 International Student Strategy of Turkey: Analysis of The Present Situation and Suggestions for The Solutions of The Problems <p>Since knowledge today is the most powerful core source for individuals, society and states, it is becoming an essential leverage that affects profoundly the dynamics of all parties. For this reason, information gains a nature that will affect all dynamics of individual and social life. Moreover, the fact that there is no boundary for knowledge is very convenient for states that want to expand their power and efficiency. Due to that, they allocate a huge number of resources on producing knowledge. Commercializing the strategic knowledge is also an affirmative determinant for this allocation.</p> <p>Higher education institutions are places where qualified information is processed and transferred. For this reason, it is only possible to reach qualified information by receiving education in higher education institutions that provide this service under appropriate conditions. The transformation of knowledge into a basic need for people and societies today significantly increases the demands for higher education. In countries that develop higher education institutions with their investments, the demands for these institutions are increasing day by day not only by the citizens of the countries but also by international students who cannot access qualified information in their countries for various reasons. In this sense, Turkey has become a centre of attraction in higher education seriously. It is vital for Turkey to successfully implement perpetually the Internationalization Strategy Document in Higher Education to meet fast increasing international student demands.</p> <p>This paper makes an effort to review the current situation of the internationalization strategy of higher education in Turkey, summarize its implementation, emphasize problems encountered, and propose very essential suggestions for the solutions of these problems. It will surely help Turkey’s effort to reach its target on the internationalization strategy of higher education, and to become an important centre of attraction for both international students and academic staffs. As suggested in this paper, this aim is acquired only under the condition of identifying problems, making decisions very fast for the solutions, and prosecuting the implementation of the decisions continuously.</p> İbrahim Kürtül Enver Kapağan Mustafa Kundakçı Yılmaz Bacaklı Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of History Culture and Art Research 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 10 1 113 131 10.7596/taksad.v10i1.3012