Umayyad Relations with Byzantium Empire
Keywords:Umayyad Caliphates, Umayyad era, Byzantine Empire, Foreign relationship, Muslim-Christian relations.
This research investigates the political and military relations between Umayyad caliphates with the Byzantine Empire. The aim of this research is to clarify Umayyad caliphate’s relations with the Byzantine Empire. We know that these relations were mostly about war and fight. Because there were always intense conflicts between Muslims and the Byzantine Empire, they had to have an active continuous diplomacy to call truce and settle the disputes. Thus, based on the general policy of the Umayyad caliphs, Christians were severely ignored and segregated within Islamic territories. This segregation of the Christians was highly affected by political relationships. It is worthy of mentioning that Umayyad caliphs brought the governing style of the Sassanid kings and Roman Caesar into the Islamic Caliphate system but they didn’t establish civil institutions and administrative organizations.
Baynes, N. G. (2007). Byzantium: An Introduction to East Roman Civilization. Baynes Press.
Ibn Alasir (1980). Alkamil fi Tarikh. Tehran: Elmi va Farhangi.
Ibn Khaldoun (1984). Ibn-i Khaldoun History. Tehran: Cultural studies and research.
Ibn Raste (1986). Alalagh al-Nafise. Tehran: Amir Kabir.
Ibn Alebri (1985). Tarikh Mokhtasar. Tehran: Ittelaat.
Ibn Alfora (1947). Safiran. Tehran: Enghelab Eslami education.
Balazari, A. (1988). Fotouh al-Baladan. Tehran: Noghreh.
Ibn Maskouyeh Razi (1988). Tajareb al-Omam. Tehran: Soroush.
Zeidan, G. (1956). Islam History. Tehran: Amir Kabir.
Hamidollah, M. (1996). Political Letters and Treaties of Prophet Muhammad and Documents of Early Islam. Tehran: Soroush.
Hamavi, S. (1995). Moajam al-Baladan. Beirut: DarolBeirut.
Dinvari, A. (1982). Akhbaro Taval. Tehran: Ney publication.
Tabari, L. (1983). Tabari History. Beirut: Darol Kotob Elmieh.
Masoudi, A. (1986). Al-Tanbih al-Ashraf. Tehran: Elmi Farhangi.
Nakhjavani, H. (1978). Tajareb al-self. Tehran: Elmi Farhangi.
Noiri, Sh. (1985). Nahayat al-Arb fi fonoun al-Adab. Tehran: Amir Kabir.
Yaghoubi, A. (1987). Yaghoubi History. Tehran: Elmi Farhangi.
How to Cite
LicenseAll papers licensed under Creative Commons 4.0 CC-BY.
- Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format
- Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially.
Under the following terms:
- No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.