A Historical Study of Immigration Phenomenon in Undeveloped Societies: Study of Economic Reasons of Immigration during Pahlavi I Period in Zahedan

Shahram Yousefifar, Azam Riahi

Özet


During the reign of Reza Shah, policy of magisterial modernization was done on the basis of society modernization by importing products, civilization manifestations, modern management, monopolizing political power and governmentalizing economy. Social structures, under the influence of integration in global system and the effects caused by two world wars, as a semi-periphery region, did not stay away from unpleasant consequences of the situation such as immigration inside the borders of Iran and immigration among the political borders of Iran especially in eastern borders. Because of special geographical situation (border region) and economic situation (silk trade route), eastern borders had an important role in Iran’s exterritorial immigration system and were receptive to resident ethnics in neighbor countries (Hazara in Afghanistan, Sikh, etc.) and were also the entry gate of immigrants to eastern cities of Iran. In this research, emphasizing on Iran’s situation in global system, immigration and its causes on Zahedan have been studied. The results suggest that the strategic location of Zahedan was a predisposing factor of preliminary foundations such as railway for economy growth of the city and a small group of Hindus’ immigration for employment in this part. Gradually, central government actions in customs section and transportation development, turned Zahedan into a suitable region for trade that resulted immigration and habitation of many citizens of neighboring countries in order to work in economic fields. Because of disability in adaption to new conditions and lack of proficiency, many native inhabitants immigrated to the other regions.


Anahtar Kelimeler


Immigration, Zahedan, Pahlavi I period, Undeveloped societies.

Tam Metin:

PDF (English)

Referanslar


Ahmadi, Hamid (1999). Ghomiat va Ghomiat garayi dar Iran (Ethnicity and Ethnocentrism in Iran), Tehran: Ney.

Asgari (1978). Moghaddame i bar Shenakht-e Sistan va Balouchestan (An Introduction to Sistan and Balochistan Recognition), Tehran: Donya-ye Danesh.

Aitchison, C. U. (1993). A collection of treaties, agreements and sanads relating to India and neighbouring countries, V.13, Calcutta.

Curzon, George (1983). Persia and the Persian Question, Vol.2, Tr. by: Vahid Mazandarani, Tehran: Elmi-Farhangi Publication.

Dyer, C. E. M. (1877). The Country Of Baluchistan, Its Geography, Topography, Ethnography and History, London: George Bell And Sons.

Gilbert, Allan & Josef, Gugler (1996). Cities, Poverty and Development: Urbanization in the third world, Tr. by: Parviz Karimi Naseri, Tehran: Department of Public and International Affairs of Municipality.

Hein, de Haas (2007). Migration and Development: A Theoretical Perspective, Bielefeld: COMCAD.

Field, Henry (1964). Contributions to the Anthropology of Iran, Tr. by: Abdollah Faryar, Tehran: Ebn-e Sina Library.

Jahanbani, Amanollah (1959). Sargozasht-e Balouchestan va Marz haye aan (Destiny of Balochistan and its Boundaries), Tehran.

¬¬¬¬¬¬¬Jahanbani, Amanollah (1959). Amaliat-e Ghoshoun dar Balouchestan (Army Operations in Balochistan), Tehran: Parliament Publication.

Karimian Bostani, Maryam (2003). “Parakandegi-e Joghrafiayi va Shenakht-e Hoze-ye Ejtemaei-e Aghaliat-e Sik dar Shahr-e Zahedan” (“Geographical distribution and recognition of Sikh minority’s social life in city of Zahedan”), Tahghighat-e Joghrafiayi Journal, no.71.

Katouzian, Homayoun (1993). Political Economy of Modern Iran, Tr. by: Mohammad Reza Nafisi, & Kambiz Azizi, Tehran: Markaz.

Kaviani Rad, Morad (2010). Nahieh garayi dar Iran az Manzar-e Joghrafiayi ( Regionalism in Iran from the perspective of political geography), Tehran: Institute for strategic Studies.

Khosravi, Khosro (n.d.). Encyclopaedia Islamica, Vol.4, Appendix Entry of Baloch and Balochistan.

King, Russell (2012). Theories and Typologies of Migration: An Overview and a Primer, Sweden: Malmö University.

Lahsaei Zadeh, Abdolali (1989). Theories of Immigration, Shiraz: Navid.

Luft, J. B. (2001). “Britain’s policy in East of Iran during the First World War”, Tr. by: Maryam Bahramian, Journal of History of Foreign Relations, no.7&8. Summer and Autumn of 2001.

Maberly, James (1990). Operations in Persia (The First World War 1914-1919), Tr. By: Kaveh Bayat, Tehran: Rasa.

Mahboubi Ardakani, Hossein (1997). Tarikh-e Mo’assesat-e Tamaddoni-e jaded dar Iran (History of Modern Civilizational Institutes in Iran), vol.2, Tehran: University of Tehran.

Mahdavi, Seyyed Mohammad Sadegh & Mahdieh Salmasi (2009). “Avamel-e Ejtemaei-Eghtesadi-e moa’sser bar Eshteghal-e Zanan-e Irani” (“Effective socio-economic factors on Iranian women’s employment in Calgary in 2009”), Jame’eh shenasi-e Mo’aser, 1st year, no.3.

Malekshahi, Hashem (2008). “Engelis va Jodayi-e Balouchestan” (“Britain and Balochitan’s Separation”), Tarikh-e Moaser-e Iran,12th year, no.45.

Massey, Douglas S. (1990). "The Social and Economic Origins of Immigration", Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 510, World Population: Approaching the Year 2000.

Massey, Douglas S.; Joaquin, Arango; Graeme, Hugo; Ali Kouaouci; Adela, Pellegrino & J. Edward Taylor (1993). Source,"Theories of International Migration: A Review and Appraisal Author(s)", Population and Development Review, Vol. 19, No. 3.

Mojtahedzadeh, Pirouz (1998). “Marz haye Sharghi-e Iran” (“Eastern Boundaries of Iran”), Goftegoo Journal, no.21.

Salimi, Hossein (n.d.). “Ta’ammoli dar Nazarie ye Nezam-e Jahani” (“A contemplation in global system theory”), Monthly Journal of Political and Economic Informations, no.107&108.

Sepahi, Abd-al Vadoud (2008). “Morouri bar Tarikh-e Balouchestan-e Iran (Dar Asre Reghabate Oroupaeian) “ (“Reviewing the history of Balochistan in Iran in the age of European competition”), Roshd-e Amouzesh-e Tarikh Journal, 10th period, no.32.

Soltani, Sima (1997). "Peydayi-e Shahr-e Zahedan"( Formation of Zahedan City), Journal of Management and Planning Organization, no.67.

Spooner, Brian (n.d.). "Baluchistan i. Geography, History and Ethnography" Encyclopedia Iranica, Vol. III, Fasc. 6.

Yaghfouri, Hossein (2008). “Barname Rizi-e Tose’eh ye Paydar-e Shahr-e Zahedan” ( “Planning stable development of Zahedan”), PhD Thesis, Supervised by: Hamid Reza Varesi and Ali Zangabadi, University of Isfahan.

Yaghmaei, Eghbal (1971). Balouchestan va Sistan (Balochistan and Sistan), Tehran: General Writing Office of the Ministry of Culture and Art.

Zand Moghaddam, Mahmoud (1996). Hekayat-e Balouch (Baloch Story), 2nd Book, Tehran: Mo’allef.

Zanjani (2001). Mohajerat (Immigration), Tehran: Samt.

Zarrin Kelk, Behnaz (2003). Asnad-i az Ravabet-e Iran va Engelis (Documents of relations between Iran and Britain, Tehran: Archives Organization.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7596/taksad.v6i2.654

Refback'ler

  • Şu halde refbacks yoktur.




Telif Hakkı (c) 2017 Journal of History Culture and Art Research

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

ISSN: 2147-0626