The Historical Basis of Aceh Development

Mehmet Özay

Özet


The Historical Basis of Aceh Socio-Economics Development (1511-1904)

                                                                                                    

    Abstract

         It is vital to see the connection between experiences in history and contemporary developments in almost all corners of the world.  Regions which appear as leading powers in economic developments have historically had their own particular dynamics.  In the event that the dynamics of the past uncover the true means to go forward, it will trigger the path of progress at an unexpected time, when similar conditions are met.  Taking this condition into account with regard to Aceh, we see that Aceh has been a potential candidate for the newly emerging economic development centers in Southeast Asia after the disastrous event on 26th December, 2004, pursuant to which the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) in Helsinki was signed by the related sides on 15th August, 2005. To assess and evaluate the possibilities and opportunities that open up before Aceh Province by virtue of the MoU, the tradition of economic developments in history should be revisited and evaluated. It might be assumed that the reflections from the past will certainly enlighten the future. This article suggests that the economic development of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam in the past might be a starting point for all parties in Aceh Province to deduce exactly how to deal with prevailing difficulties so as to commence economic progress in the region.  It is considered that historical experiences are repetitive. The significance of Aceh was based on several diverse factors, primarily its state structure, economic activities, and geo-strategic position on the extreme northwest of Sumatra, that allowed it to be a part of the international sea trade between the east and the west between the 16th and 19th centuries. These characteristics propelled Aceh to become not only a prominent region, but also gain supremacy in global partnerships in the business of international trade.  After the peace agreement celebrations, it is the need of the hour for all social and economic sectors in Aceh Province to trigger the potentiality of their region by looking at their flourishing past.



Les Fondements Historiques Du Développement Socio-Economique d’Aceh  (1511-1904)

Résumé

Il existe une relation remarquable entre le développement économique actuel des pays et des régions et leurs expériences vécues dans le passé. Dans ce contexte, on peut suggérer que cette relation pourrait être basée sur les dynamiques propres à ces pays. En effet, avec la découverte de ces dynamiques qui existait dans le passé, on peut prévoir que certaines régions d’aujourd’hui peuvent de nouveau occuper une place sur la scène mondiale si des conditions similaires existent encore. Dans cet article, nous étudions que l’Aceh – si elle s'accorde aux développements récents dans le monde– a une potentialité qui lui donne une place méritée surtout dans les stratégies de développement socio-économique de l’Asie du Sud-ouest. Pour comprendre à quoi ce potentiel correspond, il faudra analyser la structure de l’économie et les interactions économiques émergeant de l’existence politique de l’Ache plus particulièrement à partir du début de 16ème jusqu’au début du 20èmesiècle. Nous pensons que, au cours des siècles, la tradition étatique du Sultanat d’Aceh – qui lui a permis d’être l’objet des relations commerciales internationales entre l’est et l'ouest – ses activités économiques et sa position géostratégique seront des références pour son avenir.

 

 

         Açe’deki Sosyo-Ekonomik Kalkınmanın Tarihsel Temelleri (1511-1904)

 

Özet

Ülkelerin ve coğrafyaların bugünkü ekonomik gelişmişlikleri ile geçmişte yaşadıkları tecrübeler arasında dikkate değer bir ilişki vardır. Bu bağlamda, bu ilişkinin söz konusu bölgelerin kendine has dinamiklere dayandığı ileri sürülebilir. Öyle ki, geçmişte var olan bu dinamiklerin keşfiyle, bugün kimi bölgelerin, benzer koşulların hasıl olması halinde, yeniden dünya sahnesinde varlık bulabileceklerini öngörebiliriz.  Bu makalede, Açe’nin, son dönemde yaşanan gelişmeler ışığında ele alındığında, dünyanın özellikle de Güneydoğu Asya’nın sosyo-ekonomik kalkınma stratejileri içerisinde hak ettiği yeri alabilecek bir potansiyele sahip olduğu üzerinde durulmaktadır. Bu potansiyelin nelere tekabül ettiği, Açe’nin özellikle 16. yüzyıl başlarından 20. yüzyıl başlarına kadar devam eden siyasi varlığı içerisinde ortaya çıkan ekonomik yapısı ve ekonomik etkileşimlerinin analiz edilmesiyle yakından ilintilidir. Açe İslam Sultanlığı’nı sözü edilen yüzyıllar içerisinde, Doğu-Batı arasındaki uluslararası ticaret ilişkilerine konu olmasını sağlayan devlet geleneği, ekonomik aktiviteleri ve jeo-stratejik konumunun Açe’nin geleceği için bir referans olacağını düşünüyoruz.

 

 

الأساس التاريخي للتنمية الاجتماعية  والاقتصادية في اتشيه     (1511-1904)a

ملخص

لا شك أن هناك علاقة وثيقة بين تجارب الدول والمناطق المختلفة في الماضي وبين الحالة الإقتصادية التي تعيشها تلك الدول والمناطق اليوم. هذه العلاقة التي كانت موجودة في الماضي والتي نشأت على أساس عوامل وظروف خاصة بتلك الدول والمناطق، يمكن اكتشافها مرة أخرى اليوم وتطويرها على الساحة العالمية في بعض المناطق الأخرى من العالم لظروف مشابهة. وهذا البحث محاولة لتحليل واقع مدينة اتشيه، وبيان الاستراتيجيات المطلوبة لها في ضوء التغيرات السياسية والاقتصادية التي يمر بها العالم وخاصة جنوب شرق آسيا في الآونة الأخيرة من جانب. ومن جانب آخر محاولة اكتشاف مدى وجود العلاقة بين ما كانت تملك من إمكانات واستراتيجيات سياسية واقتصادية هائلة في الماضي، خاصة في القرن السادس عشر وبداية القرن العشرين الميلادي، وحالتها السياسية والإقتصادية اليوم. وأخيرا نعتقد أن سلطنة اتشيه بما لها من تاريخ عريق وموقع جغرافي استراتيجي خاصة في مجال التجارة الدولية والربط بين الشرق والغرب مؤهلة لمستقبل أفضل.


Anahtar Kelimeler


Aceh Sultanate, Southeast Asia, Indian Ocean, trade business, Sultanat d’Aceh, Asie du Sud-ouest, Océan Indien, Commerce International, Açe Sultanlığı, Güneydoğu Asya, Hint Okyanusu, uluslararası ticaret, سلطنة اتشيه، وجنوب شرق آسيا، والأعمال التجارية

Tam Metin:

PDF

Referanslar


Anthony Reid, Imperial Alchemy: Nationalism and Political Identity in Southeast Asia,

Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2010, p.116.

Peter J. M. Nas, “The Early Indonesian Town: Rise and Decline of the City-State and Its

Capital”, In The Indonesian City, (eds.) Peter J. M. Nas, Foris Publications, Dordrecht-Holland,

, p. 32; Arun K. Dasgupta, Acheh in Indonesian Trade and Politics: 1600-1641, Cornell

University, 1962, p. 35-6; B. Schrieke, Indonesian Sociological Studies, Part 2, W. Van Hoeve

Ltd-The Hague and bandung, 1957, p. 235, 260.

Horace St. John, The Indian Archipelago: Its History and Present State, Vol. I, Longman,

London, 1853, p. 91-2.

Roxani Eleni Margariti, Aden and The Indian Ocean Trade: 150 Years in the Life of a

Medieval Arabian Port, The University of North Carolina Press, 2007, p. 19.

Anthony Reid, 2010, p. 115.

James T. Siegel, The Rope of God, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1969, s. 4;

Lukman Thaib, The Roots of The Acehnese Struggle, 2000, p. 3; Anthony H. Johns, “Islam in

Southeast Asia: Reflections and New Directions”, In Indonesia, (eds.) (unknown name), Cornell

University Press, Ithaca, New York, 1976, p. 38; Moshe Yegar, Islam and Islamic Institutions In

British Malaya, The Magnes Press, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 1979, p. 7.

Anthony Reid, “The Pre-modern Sultanate’s View of Its Place in the World”, In Verandah Of

Violence -The Background to the Aceh Problem-, (eds.) Anthony Reid, Singapore University

Press, 2006, p. 55.

Teuku H. Đbrahim Alfian, ”Islam Dan Kerajaan Aceh Darussalam”, In Sejarah Dan Dialog

Peradaban, (eds.) Taufik Abdullah, LIPI Press, Jakarta, 2006, p. 239.

Ito Takeshi, The World of the Adat Aceh: A Historical Study of the Sultanate of Aceh, PhD

Dissertation, Australian National University, 1984, p. 1, 58; Ali Hasjmy, Ruba’i Hamzah Fansuri

-Karya Sastra Sufi Abad XVII-, Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, Kuala Lumpur, 1976, p. 1; Teuku H.

Đbrahim Alfian, 2006, p. 239.

Armando Cortesao, (Ed.), The Suma Oriental Of Tome Pires, I. Cilt, Asian Educational

Services, New Delhi, 1990, p. 135.

Halil Đnalcık, “The Ottoman State: Economy and Society: 1300-1600, In An Economic and

Social History of the Ottoman Empire: 1300-1914, (eds.) Halil Đnalcık; Donald Quataert,

Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1994, p. 328.

D. G. E. Hall, A History of South-East Asia, Third Edition, The Macmillan Press Ltd.,

London, 1976, p. 218.

M. C. Ricklefs, Sejarah Indonesia Modern 1200-2004, Serambi, 2004, p. 81; John Bastin;

Robin W. Winks, (eds.) Malaysia: Selected Historical Readings, Nendeln, Liechetenstein, 1979,

p. 61; V. K. Chavda, “Trade and Urbanization in Gujarat in the Early 17th Century: A Dutch

Account”, In Precious Metals and Commerce, (eds.) Om Prakash, Variorum, 1994, p. 69; D. J. M.

Tate, The Making of Modern South-East Asia, Vol. 1, Oxford University Press, Revised Edition,

Kuala Lumpur, 1977, p. 223; 1

John Bastin, “The Changing Balance of the Southeast Asian

Pepper Trade”, In Spices in the Indian Ocean World, (eds.) M. N. Pearson, Variorum, 1996, p.

; B. Schrieke, 1957, p. 235.

Anthony Reid, “Islamization and Christianization in Southeast Asia: The Critical Phase,

-1650”, In Southeast Asia in the Early Modern Era: Trade, Power and Belief, (eds.)

Anthony Reid, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 1993, p. 164; Lukman Thaib, 2000 , p. 3.

C. R. Boxer, The Portuguese Seaborne Empire: 1415-1825; Carcanet, Lisbon, 1991, p. 43;

Anthony Reid, “Indonesian Diplomacy A Documentary Study of Atjehnese Foreign Policy in the

Reign of Sultan Mahmud: 1870-4”, JMBRAS, Vol. XLII, Part 2, December, (1969), p. 74.

Anthony Reid, (eds.), Witnesses to Sumatra: A Travellers’ Anthology, Oxford University

Press, Kuala Lumpur, 1995, p. 54.

Anthony Reid, “Introduction”, (Ed.), Anthony Reid, The Making of An Islamic Political

Discourse in Southeast Asia, Aristoc Press Pty, Centre of Southeast Asian Studies, Monash

University, Clayton-Victoria, Australia, 1993, p. 7.

K. N. Chaudhuri, “European Trade with India”, In The Cambridge Economic History of

Indian, (eds.) Tapan Raychaudhuri; Irfan Habib, Vol 1:1200-1750, Cambridge University Press,

Cambridge, 1982, p. 384.

B. Schrieke, 1957, p. 235; Anthony Reid, An Indonesian Frontier -Acehnese and Other

Histories of Sumatra-, p. 6.

Ali Hasjmy, 50 Tahun Aceh Membangun, Majelis Ulama Indonesia, 1. Baskı, Bali Medan,

, p. 135.

Ito Takeshi, 1984, p. 276.

François Martin, “Aceh in 1602”, In Witnesses to Sumatra: A Travellers’ Anthology, (eds.)

Anthony Reid, Oxford University Press, Kuala Lumpur, 1995, p. 63.

D. G. E. Hall, 1976, p. 225.

Jeyamalar Kathirithamby-Wells, “Restraints on the Development of Merchant Capitalism in

Southeast Asia before c. 1800”, In Southeast Asia in the Early Modern Era, (eds.) Anthony Reid,

Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 1993, p. 127; William Foster, (eds.), A New Account of the East

Indies -by Alexander Hamilton, Vol I-II, N. Israel/Amsterdam, 1970, p. 60; Ito Takeshi, 1984, p.

; Anthony Reid, “Introduction”, 1993, p. 8.

J. Paulus, Asal Usul Raja-Raja Aceh, (eds.), Encyclopedie van N.I. 1917 (H. 72-76) A-G, p.

-8; H. M. Zainuddin, Tarich Atjeh dan Nusantara, Pustaka Iskandar Muda, 1st edition, Medan,

, p. 272; Jeyamalar Kathirithamby-Wells, 1993, p. 144.

Jeyamalar Kathirithamby-Wells, 1993, p. 146.

C.H.H. Wake, “The Changing Pattern of Europe’s Pepper and Spice Imports: ca 1400-1700”,

In Spices in the Indian Ocean World, (eds.) M. N. Pearson, Variorum, 1996, p. 163.

Anthony Reid, 2005, p. 97.

S. Arasaratnam, “Introduction”, JMBRAS, Vol. X, No. 3, December, (1969), p. 392.

Razaulhak Şah, “Açi Padişahı Sultan Alaaddin’in Kanuni Sultan Süleyman’a Mektubu”,

Ankara Üniversitesi DTCF, Ankara Üniversitesi Dil ve Tarih Coğrafya Fakültesi Tarih

Araştırmaları Dergisi, V/8-9: 381-388; ttp://dergiler.ankara.edu.tr/dergiler/18/818/10382.pdf.

F. Mendez Pinto, The Voyages and Adventures of Ferdinand Mendez Pinto: A Portugal

During his Travels, tr.: Henry Cogan, An Abridged and Illustrated Edition, T. Fisher Unwin,

London, 1891, p. 42; Giancarlo Casale, The Ottoman Age of Exploration, Oxford University

Press, Oxford, 2010, p. 58-9; Anthony Reid, 1993, p. 164; Halil Đnalcık, 1994, p. 329.

Nureddin er-Raniri, Bustan’us Salatin, (Compiled by Jelani Harun, Chapter II and III, Dewan

Bahasa dan Pustaka, Kuala Lumpur, 2004, p. 338.

Đsmail Hakkı Uzunçarşılı, Osmanlı Tarihi, III. Cilt, I. Kısım, 3. Baskı, Türk Tarih Kurumu

Basımevi, Ankara, 1983, p. 31.

Giancarlo Casale, The Ottoman Age of Exploration, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2010,

p. 146.

H. M. Zainuddin, 1961, p. 401.

Ito Takeshi, 1984, p. 277.

Peunoh Dail, Hukum Perkawinan Islam, Suatu Studi Perbandingan dalam Kalangan AhlusSunnah

dan Negara-Negara Islam, (A Comparative Study in Ahlus-Sunnah and Islamic

Countries), Bulan Bintang, Publisher and Distributor of Jakarta’s books, Indonesia, 1988, p. 13.

Ali Hasjmy, “Banda Aceh Darussalam Pusat Kegiatan Ilmu Dan Kebudayaan”, Aceh Timur

-30 September, 1980, p. 5; Metin Kunt, “The Later Muslim Empires: Ottomans, Safavids,

Mughals”, Marjorie Kelly (Ed.), Islam: The Religious and Political Life of a World Community,

Praeger, New York, 1984, s. 117; A. K. Jakobi, Aceh Dalam Perang Mempertahankan

Proklamasi Kemerdekaan 1945-1949 Dan Peranan Teuku Hamid Azwar Sebagai Pejuang, PT.

Gramedia Pustaka Utama, Foundation of Seulawah, Cakarta, 2004, p. 17; Anthony Reid, 1995, p.

; Ali Hasjmy, “Bagaimana Agar Peranan Pemimpin-pemimpin Agama benar-benar Menjadi

Kenyataan”, SINAR DARUSSALAM, p. 8.

Before and during the Dutch War, there were around 60 news items of various dates

pertaining to this war, drumming up support for the Acehnese, in a journal entitled Basiret

published in Istanbul. More manuscripts regarding the Dutch War can be found in the Ottoman

Archive in Istanbul See: HR.SYS.551/2; HRS.SYS 551/5 (39); HR.SYS 551/5 (45)b.

Anthony Reid, 2010, p.120.


Refback'ler

  • Şu halde refbacks yoktur.




Telif Hakkı (c)