Mass Mobilization in Indian Politics: A Case Study of Non-Cooperation Movement


  • Farooq Ahmad Dar Quaid-i-Azam University
  • Muhammad Sajid Khan Allama Iqbal Open University
  • Muhammad Abrar Zahoor University of Sargodha



Mass-Mobilization, Non-Cooperation Movement, Gandhi, Khilafat Movement, Congress, Ulama, Swaraj, Swadeshi.


Mass-Mobilization is one of the key ingredients for not only launching a movement but also for spreading any political agenda. The involvement of the masses always plays an important role in a process of bringing change anywhere and at any time. The history of South Asia, however, witnessed that in the struggle against the colonial rulers, to begin with, started by the elite alone. Politics was considered as the domain of a selected few and the common men were considered as ignorant and perhaps irrelevant and thus were kept at a distance. It was only after the beginning of the twentieth century and especially after the entrance of Gandhi on the political screen that the masses gained importance and were directly involved in political affairs. They not only became part of the Non-Cooperation Movement but also played an important role in spreading the movement all across India. In this paper, an attempt has been made to highlight Gandhi’s efforts to mobilize Indian masses during the Non-Cooperation Movement and its impact on the future politics of the region. The paper also discusses in detail different groups of society that actively participated in the process of mass-mobilization.


Abbasi, Qazi Muhammad Adil (1986). Tehrik-i-Khilafat. Lahore: Progressive Publishers.

Adams, Jad (2010). Gandhi: Naked Ambition. London: Quercus.

Ahmad, Syed Nesar (2004). Origins of Muslim Consciousness in India: A World-System Perspective. New York: Greenwood Press.

Ashraf, K. M. (2005). Hindu-Muslim Question and our Freedom Struggle (1857-1935). Vol. 4. New Delhi: Sunrise Publications.

Azad, Maulana Abul Kalam (1959). India Wins Freedom. Bombay: Orient Longmans.

Aziz, K. K. (1976). The Making of Pakistan: A Study in Nationalism. Islamabad: National Book Foundation.

Bakshi, S. R. (1985). Gandhi and Khilafat. New Delhi: Gitanjali Publishing House.

Bakshi, S. R. (1991). Sarojini Naido: Struggle for Swaraj. New Delhi: Anmol Publications.

Bose, Sugata and Ayesha Jalal (1998). Modern South Asia: History, Culture, Political Economy. Lahore: Sang-e-Meel Publications.

Brown, Judith M. (1972). Gandhi’s Rise to Power Indian Politics 1915-1922. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Chandra, Bipan. (1989). India’s Struggle for Independence. Calcutta: Penguin Books.

Dar, Farooq Ahmad. (2019). Strategy of Loyalism: A Case Study of Syed Ahmad Khan’s Relations with the British. Journal of Political Studies, Vol. 26, No: 2., Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab, Lahore.

Desai, A. R. (1984). Social Background of Indian Nationalism. Bombay: Popular Prakashan.

Faruqi, Ziya-ul-Hasan. (n.d.). The Deoband School and the Demand for Pakistan. Lahore: Progressive Books.

Gandhi, M. K. (1957). An Autobiography: The Story of My Experience with Truth. Boston: Beacon Press.

Gandhi, Rajmohan (2007). Mohandas: A True Story of a Man, His People and an Empire. New Delhi: Penguin Books.

Gandhi’s speech at Khilafat Committee Meeting, Allahabad, June 3, 1920, in The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, Vol. XVII.

Gandhi’s speech at Khilafat Meeting, Banaras, February 20, 1920 in The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, Vol. XVII.

Gandhi’s Speech at Khilafat Conference. Delhi, [November 23, 1919] in The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, Vol. XVI.

Gandhi’s Speech at Khilafat Meeting, Banaras, [February 20, 1920] in The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, Vol. XVII. Delhi: The Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India, 1965.

Gandhi’s Speech on Non-cooperation Resolution, Calcutta Congress, [September 8, 1920], in The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, Vol. XVIII.

Guha, Ranjit, (ed.) (1984). Subaltern Studies III: Writings on South Asian History and Society. Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Haq, S. Moinul (1961). “The Khilafat Movement” in Mahmood Hussain, ed., A History of the Freedom Movement, Vol. III. Part 1. Karachi: Pakistan Historical Society.

Hasan, Mushirul (1981). Religion and Politics: The Ulama and Khilafat Movement. Economic and Political Weekly 16, no. 20 (May 16).

Lelyveld, Joseph (2011). Great Soul: Mahatma Gadhi and His Struggle with India. New Delhi: Harper Collins.

Majumdar, S. K. (1976). Jinnah and Gandhi: Their Role in India’s Quest for Freedom. Lahore: People’s Publishing House.

Minault, Gail (1988). The Khilafat Movement: Religious Symbolism and Political Mobilization in India. Pakistan Journal of History and Culture 9, no. 2 (July-December 1988).

Minault, Gail (1982). The Khilafat Movement: Religious Symbolism and Political Mobilization in India. New York: Columbia University Press.

Mitra, H. N. (ed.) (1988). The Indian Annual Register 1921, Vol. I. Delhi: Gian Publishing House.

Nanda, B. R. (1965). Mahatma Gandhi: A Biography. London: Unwin Books.

Nanda, B. R. (1989). Gandhi Pan-Islamism Imperialism and Nationalism. Bombay: Oxford University Press.

Parekh, Chunilal Lallubhai (ed.) (1887). Essay, Speeches, Addresses and Writings of the Hon’able Dadabhai Naoroji. London: Cantox Printing Works.

Pati, Biswamoy (2011). “Natioanlist Politics and the Making of Bal Gangadhar Tilak”, in Biswamoy Pati ed., Bal Gangadhar Tilak: Popular Readings. Delhi: Primus Books.

Qureshi, Ishtiaq Husain (1977). The Muslim Community of the Indo-Pakistan Subcontinent. Karachi: Ma‘aref Limited.

Qureshi, M. Naeem (2009). Pan-Islam in British India: The Politics of the Khilafat Movement, 1918-1924. Karachi: Oxford University Press.

Rauf, Abdul (1999). Khilafat Movement in the North West Frontier Province: A Historical Perspective, Journal of the Research Society of Pakistan 36, no. 3 (July 1999).

Reeves, Peter D. (1966). The Politics of Order: ‘Anti-non-Cooperation’ in the United Provinces, 1921. The Journal of Asian Studies 25, no. 2 (Feb., 1966).

Robinson, Francis C. R. (1975). Separatism among Indian Muslims: The Politics of the United Provinces, 1860-1923. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Saeed, Ahmad (1976). Hasool-i-Pakistan. Lahore: New Crescent Publishers.

Sarkar, Sumit (2003). Modern India: 1885-1947. Delhi: Macmillan.

Sayeed, K. B. (1988).Pakistan: The Formative Phase 1857-1948. London: Oxford University Press.

Seal, Anil (1971). The Emergenece of Indian Nationalism: Competition and Collaboration in Later Nineteenth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Som, Reba (2004). Gandhi, Bose, Nehru and the Making of the Modern Indian Mind. New Delhi: Penguin.

Suntharalingam, R. (1983). Indian Nationalism: An Historical Analysis. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House.

Talbot, Ian (2017). A History of Modern South Asia: Politics, States, Diasporas. Karachi: Oxford University Press.

Tharoor, Shashi (2016). An Era of Darkness: The British Empire in India. New Delhi: ALEPH.

Tidrick, Kathryn (2006). Gandhi: A Political and Spiritual Life. London: I. B. Tauris.

Rushbrook Williams, L. S. (1922). India in 1921-22: A Report prepared for presentation to Parliament in accordance with the requirements of the 26th Session of the Government of India Act. Calcutta: Superintendent Government Printing.

Wolpert, Stanley (2001). Gandhi’s Passion: The Life and Legacy of Mahatma Gandhi. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Yajnik, Indulal K. (1943). Gandhi as I know Him. Delhi: Danish Mahal.




How to Cite

Dar, F. A., Khan, M. S., & Zahoor, M. A. (2021). Mass Mobilization in Indian Politics: A Case Study of Non-Cooperation Movement. Journal of History Culture and Art Research, 10(2), 13-25.