Identifying the Value of Traditional Cultural Landscape in Rural Settlements




Cultural landscape, Cultural heritage, Value of landscape, Black sea region, Şavşat


The traditions, socio-economic conditions, habitational settings and the climatic factors of a society become stratified with the cultural values ​​and establish the current values of the cultural landscape. The significance of a rural landscape as cultural heritage is directly related to the existence of cultural values and cultural landscape, which constitutes the totality of the cultural values ​​should be preserved in order to ensure historical and cultural sustainability. The study area (Şavşat/Artvin, Turkey) has a rich value based on its cultural landscape and texture, given its rich biodiversity and the lifestyle of different cultures that shaped the traditional settlement. Certain routes were determined within the scope of the present study, with the aim to encompass the whole Şavşat. A method based on an inventory study was employed to analyze the 39 rural settlements and the values of the traditional cultural landscape ​​were quantified through scoring 8 parameters based on the existence or nonexistence of cultural values. The 5-point scoring was ranged as follows: very low, low, medium, high and very high. Based on this scoring, Yavuz village, Kocabey, Kirazlı, Kayadibi, Çoraklı, Şavşat Center, Ilıca, Maden were found have high, Cevizli, Maden, Köprülü and Çağlayan were found to have very high values for the cultural landscape. Consequently, it was indicated that identifying the values of the traditional cultural landscape through the scoring system based on the existence and nonexistence of cultural values with respect to certain parameters could contribute to the literature. It was considered that the findings of the present study could provide an important database in the regional/sub-regional scale for the conservation of cultural values with natural landscape resources and conveying these values to future generations.


Anonymous (1996). Landscape Management. Guidelines for identifying, assessing and managing cultural landscapes in the Australian Alps national parks, Cultural Heritage Working Group Australian Alps Liaison Committee.

Anonymous (2003). European Rural Heritage Observation Guide, CEMAT.

ASLA, (2006).“Rural Landscape, An ASLA Professional Practice Network”. Fall 2006,

Atik, M., Işikli, R. C., Ortaçeşme, V., Yildirim, E. (2015). Definition of landscape character areas and types in Side region, Antalya-Turkey with regard to land use planning. Land Use Policy, Vol. 44., pp. 90-100.,

Bartlett, D., Gomez-Martin, E., Milliken, S., & Parmer, D. (2017). Introducing landscape character assessment and the ecosystem serviceapproach to India: A case study, Landscape and Urban Planning, vol:167, p:257-266

Belknap, R. K. and Furtado, J. G., Forster, R. R., Blossom, H. D. (1967). Three Approaches to Environmental Resource Analysis. Washington.


Birnbaum, C. A. (1996). Usnps Preservation Brief 36: Protecting Cultural Landscapes: Planning, Treatment And Management Of Historic Landscapes. [Online] Http://Www.Cr.Nps.Gov/Hps/Tps/Briefs/Brief36.Htm

Brabyn, L. (1996). Landscape classification using GIS and national digitaldatabases. Landscape Research 21 (3), 277–300.

Brabyn, L., (1997). Classification of macro landforms using GIS. ITC Journal1997-1, 26–40

Brabyn, L. (2005). Solutions ForCharacterising Natural Landscapes İn New Zealand Using GeographicalİnformationSystems, Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 76, s: 23–34

Cleere, H. (1995). The Evaluation Of Cultural Landscapes: The Role Of Icomos. Cultural Landscape Of Universal Value. Vch Publishing, London.

Cullotta, S., Barbera, G. (2011). Mapping traditional cultural landscapes in the Mediterranean area using a combined multidisciplinary approach: Method and application to Mount Etna (Sicily; Italy). Landscape and Urban Planning, 100(1-2): 98-108.

Droste, B. V. (1995). Cultural Landscapes İn A Global World Heritage Strategy. Cultural Landscape Of Universal Value. Vch Publishing, London.

Eetvelde, V. V. and Antrop, I. M. (2009). Indicators for assessing changing landscape character of cultural landscapes in flanders (Belgium). Land Use Policy 26:901-910.

Erdoğan, A., Turgut, H., (2013). Kültürel Peyzaj Kapsamında Anadolu Türk Kültüründe Bitkilerin Algılanması Ve Geleneksel Türk El Sanatlarında Motif Olarak Kullanılması, Perception of plants in Anatolian Turkish culture and use as motifs in traditional Turkish handicrafts within the scope of cultural landscape İSTYAM, İstanbul, 377-385

Erduran, F., Uzun, O., Çetinkaya, G., Dilek, F. and Açıksöz, S. (2012). Determination of the cultural landscape values of Lake Suğla in Turkey. Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment Vol.10 (2): 949-955.

Fowler, P. J. (2003). UNESCO World heritage cultural landscapes, 1992-2002, World Heritage series papers; Vol.:6 [Online]

Gilbert, C. A. (1985). Ebey’s Landing National Historic Reserve: Reading the Cultural Landscape. [Online]

Goetcheus, C., Uzun, A. (2010). Considering Nature, Culture And Landscape Change: Kastamonu, Turkey And Charleston, South Carolina (USA), ECLAS 2010

Gorman, A. (2005). The Cultural Landscape Of İnterplanetary Space, Journal Of Social Archaeology, Division Of Archaeology And Palaeoanthropology, School Of Human And Environmental Studies, University of New England, Australia.

Halfacree, K. H. (1995). Talking about rurality: social representations of the ruralas expressed by residents of six English parishes. J. Rural Stud. 11 (1), 1–20.

Jones, M., Daugstad, K. (1996). Usages of the "Cultural Landscape" Concept in Norwegian and Nordic Landscape Administration. Landscape Research, Vol. 22, No. 3

ICOMOS (2010). The role of ICOMOS in the World Heritage Convention. [Online]

Keller, T., Keller, G. P. And Melnıck, R. (1999). National Register Bulletin 30:Guidelines For Evaluating And Documenting Rural Historic Landscapes [Online] Http://Www.Cr.Nps.Gov/Publications/Bulletins/Nrb30/

Kim, K-H., Pauleit, S., (2007). LandscapeCharacter, BiodiversityAnd Land Use Planning: The Case Of Kwangju City Region, South Korea, Land UsePolicy, Vol. 24, s: 264–274

Lennon, J. (1997). Case Study Of The Cultural Landscapes Of The Central Victorian Goldfields, State Of The Environment Technical Paper Series (Natural And Cultural Heritage), Australia, Heritage Consultants, Hamilton.

Lennon, J. and Mathews, S. (2006). Cultural Landscapes Management: Guidelines for identifying, assessing and managing cultural landscapes Australian Alps National Parks 1996. [Online]

Linton, D. (1970). The assessment of scenery as a natural resource. ScottishGeographical Magazine 84 (3), 219–238

Lipský, Z., Romportl, D. (2007). Classification and typology of cultural landscapes: methods and applications. The Role of Landscape Studies for Sustainable Development.p: 519-535. Warsaw, Poland.

Mechtild, R. (2000). Landscape Stewardship: New Directions İn Conservation Of Nature And Culture, George Wright Forum, C:7, N: 1 [Online] Www.Georgewright.Org/171rossler.Pdf

Mücher, C. A., Bunce, R. G. H., Jongman, R. H. G., Klijn, J. A., Koomen, A. J. M., Metzger, M. J., Wascher, D. M. (2003). Identification and Characterisation of Environments and Landscapes in Europe. Alterra-report 832, p. 119. Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Mücher, C. A., Wascher, D. M., Klijn, J. A., Koomen, A. J. M., Jongman, R. H. G. (2006). A new european landscape map as an integrative framework for landscape character assessment. In: landscape ecology in the Mediterranean: inside and outside approaches. In: Bunceand, R. G .H., Jongman, R. H. G. (Eds.), Proceedings of the European IALE Conference, 29 March e 2 April 2005 Faro, Portugal, IALE Publication Series, vol. 3, pp. 233e243.

O’donnell, P. (1995). Cultural Landscapes Of North America: An Overview Of Status İn The U.S. And Canada, Cultural Landscapes Of Universal Value, Gfv Publication, Germany.

Özsüle, Z. (2005). Geleneksel Yerleşimlerin Korunmasının Kültürel Peyzaj Açısından Değerlendirilmesi. Doktora Tezi. İstanbul Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 249 s., İstanbul.

Ryan, R. L. (2002). Preserving rural character in New England: local residents’perceptions of alternative residential development. Landsc. Urban Plann.Landsc. 61, 19–35

Ryan, R. L. (2006). ComparingTheAttitudes of LocalResidents, Planners, And Developers AboutPreservingRuralCharacter İn New England, Landscapeand Urban Planning, Vol. 75, s: 5–22

Rössler, M. (1995). Unesco And Cultural Landscape Protection. Cultural Landscape Of Universal Value. Vch Publishing, London.

Rössler, M. (1992). Unesco World Heritage Centre Background Document On Unesco World Heritage Cultural Landscapes, Fao Workshop And Steering Committee Meeting Of The Gıahs Project: Globally Important Agricultureal Heritage Systems, Paris.

Rössler, M. (2000). World Heritage Cultural Landscapes, Landscape Stewardship: New Directions İn Conservation Of Nature And Culture, The George Wright Forum17

Swanwick, C. (2002). Landscape Character Assessment Guidance to for England and Scotland, p. 96. Prepared on Behalf of The Countrside Agency and Scottish Natural Haritage, England.

Taylor, K. (2003). Cultural Landscape As Open Air Museum: Borobudur World Heritage Site And Its Setting, Humanities Research Vol. 10 No. 2.

Tilt, J. H. Et Al., (2007). UnderstandingRuralCharacter: CognitiveAnd Visual Perceptions, Landscapeand Urban Planning, Vol. 81, s: 14–26

Uzun, O., İlke, E. F., Çetinkaya, G., Erduran, F., Açıksöz, S. (2012). Peyzaj Planlama: Konya İli Bozkır-Seydişehir-Ahırlı-Yalıhüyük İlçeleri ve Suğla Gölü Mevkii Peyzaj Yönetimi, Koruma ve Planlama Projesi. T.C. Orman ve Su İşleri Bakanlığı, Doğa Koruma ve Milli Parklar Genel Müdürlüğü, Ankara, ISBN 978-605-4610-09-9, p. 175.

Vos and Meeks, (1999). Trends in European cultural landscape develeopment

Wascher, D. M. (2005). European Landscape Character Areas e Typologies, Cartography and Indicators for the Assessment of Sustainable Landscapes. Final Project Report as deliverable from the EU’s Accompanying Measure Project European Landscape Character Assessment Initiative (ELCAI), funded under the 5th Framework Programme on Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development, p. 150. Retrieved from. dwd/lineeguida/elcai_projectreport.pdf.

Wascher, D. M. (2006). Landscape character assessment as a basis for planning and designing sustainable land use in Europe. 12th EC GI&GIS 12th Workshop, Austria, Innsbruck.

Watt, L. A. (2001). Managing Cultural Landscapes: Reconciling Local Preservation And Institutional Ideology İn The National Park Service. University Of California, Berkeley.

Weeks, P. and Menta, S. (2004). Managing people and landscapes: IUCN’s protected areas categories. Journal of Human Ecology 16(4):253-263.

Yazgan, M., Erdoğan, E. (1992). Tarihi Çevrelerde Peyzaj Planlama. Peyzaj Mimarisi Derneği Yayınları No:2, Ankara.




How to Cite

Tırnakçı, A. (2021). Identifying the Value of Traditional Cultural Landscape in Rural Settlements. Journal of History Culture and Art Research, 10(1), 1-15.