Analysis of Traditional Child Plays Based on Child Culture and Child Development

Emine Nihal Lindberg, Mehmet Akif Cingi, Hande Güzel

Özet


In this study, traditional child plays were examined in the scope of child culture and their impacts on child development. The first part of the study includes the compilation of traditional children's plays which have different contents and are played in different regions of Turkey. The second part consists of examining the aspects of these plays related to child development. In order to reach traditional children's plays, research articles/books/proceedings and the reviews made by independent researchers and the Ministry of Education in Turkey were examined. A total of 51 plays were selected according to nine different criteria based on the socio-cultural approach. The criteria were geographical region of the play, number of players, gender of players, age of players, timing of the play (day, night, weekday, weekend, etc.), the play space, tools used in the play, the rules of the play and the way to play. Moreover, the impacts of the plays on child development were examined in six different fields of child development: physical, social, moral, emotional, cognitive, and sexual. The main concern in this part was to be able to describe behaviours related to a particular development objectively. In analyses, the first step was to create the first general categories and subcategories from the data. With these categories, an initial analysis form was compiled. Then the form was revised and evaluated by three experts in terms of content validity. By using the revised form, the analysis was made by three coders. Inter-coder reliability was calculated as 0.87. The results showed that plays were played outside the home, in mixed groups, and mostly by using objects such as stones and sticks found in nature. It also seemed that play was considered as a leisure activity which is more suitable for the early age children and used mostly for supporting the development or improvement of physical skills.


Anahtar Kelimeler


Child culture, traditional child plays, child development, adult intervention, participation to child play.

Tam Metin:

PDF (English)

Referanslar


Ahioğlu, N. (2008). Türkiye’de oyun ve oyuncak kültürü: “Süreklilik mi süreksizlik mi?”. Folklor ve Edebiyat Dergisi, 14 (55), 63-71.

Allin, L., West, A., & Curry, S. (2014). Mother and child constructions of risk in outdoor play. Leisure Studies, 33(6), 644-657.

Artar, M., Onur, B., & Çelen, N. (2004). Çocuk oyunlarında üç kuşakta görülen değişimler: Kırsal kesimde bir araştırma In B.Onur, N. Güney (Ed.), Türkiye’de Çocuk Oyunları: Araştırmalar, Ankara: Ankara Üniversitesi Çocuk Kültürü Araştırma ve Uygulama Merkezi.

Bekmezci, H., & Ozkan, H. (2015). Oyun ve oyuncağın çocuk sağlığına etkisi. İzmir Dr. Behçet Uz Çocuk Hast. Dergisi 2015; 5(2):81-87

Blair, C., & Razza, R. P. (2007). Relating effortful control, executive function, and false belief understanding to emerging math and literacy ability in kindergarten. Child Development, 78 (2), 647-663.

Bodrova, E., Germeroth, C., & Leong, D. J. (2013). Play and self-regulation: Lessons from Vygotsky. American Journal of Play, 6, 111–123.

Burdette, H. L., & Whitaker, R. C. (2005). A national study of neighborhood safety, outdoor play, television viewing, and obesity in preschool children. Pediatrics, 116 (3), 657-662.

Chen, F., & Fleer, M. (2016). A cultural-historical reading of how play is used in families as a tool for supporting children's emotional development in everyday life. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 24 (2), 305-319.

Clements, R. (2004). An investigation of the status of outdoor play. Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 5 (1), 68-80.

Cole, M., John-Steiner, V., Scribner, S., & Souberman, E. (1978). Mind in society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Çok, F., Artar, M., Şener, T., & Bağlı, M. (1997). Kentlerdeki açık alanlarda çocuk oyunları: Ankara Örneği. In B.Onur (Eds.) Çocuk Kültürü: I.Ulusal Çocuk Kültürü Kongresi Bildirileri (pp.475-496). Ankara: Ankara Üniversitesi Çocuk Kültürü Araştırma ve Uygulama Merkezi.

Çok, F.; Ahioğlu, E. N.; Aypay, A. (2003). Çocuk, anne ve öğretmenlerin çocukların cinsel toplumsallaşmaları ile ilgili algıları. In B.Onur (Eds) Cumhuriyet’in 80.yılında Disiplinlerarası Bakışla Türkiye’de Çocuk (pp.23-64). Ankara: Ankara Üniversitesi Çocuk Kültürü Araştırma ve Uygulama Merkezi Yayınları.

Çolak, M. (2015). Adana Geleneksel Çocuk Oyunları. Unpublished master’s thesis, Niğde Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Niğde.

Daunhauer, L.A., Coster, W.J., Tickle-Degnen, L., & Cermak, S.A. (2010). Play and Cognition among Young Children Reared in an Institution. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 30:2, 83-97.

Fantuzzo, J., Y. Sekino, and H. L. Cohen. (2004). An examination of the contributions of interactive peer play to salient classroom competencies for urban Head Start children. Psychology in the Schools, 41 (3), 323–336. doi: 10.1002/pits.10162.

Fisher, K., Hirsh-Pasek, K .,Golinkoff, R. M., Singer, D., & Berk, L. E. (2010). Playing around in school: Implications for learning and educational policy. In A. Pellegrini (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of play. NY: Oxford University Press, 341-363. Retrieved November 26, 2019 from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/215479972_Playing_Around_in_School_Implications_for_Learning_and_Educational_Policy.

Flick, U., von Kardorff, E., & Steinke, I. (2004). What is qualitative research? An introduction to the field. In U.Flick, E.von Kardorff ve I.Steinke (Ed.), A companion to qualitative research (pp. 3-11). London: Sage publication.

Gaskins, S., & Miller, P. J. (2009). The cultural roles of emotions in pretend play. In C. D. Clark (Ed.), Transactions at play (Vol. 9) (pp.5-21), USA: University Press of America.

Girmen, P. (2012). Eskişehir folklorunda çocuk oyunları ve bu oyunların yaşam becerisi kazandırmadaki rolü. Milli Folklor, 24(95), 263-273.

Göncü, A. & Mosier, C. (1991). Cultural variations in the play of toddlers. Presented in the Annual Congress of Society for Research in Child Development, Seattle, WA.

Göncü, A., Tuermer, U., Jain, J., & Johnson, D. (1999). Children's play as cultural activity. In A.Goncu (Ed.), Children's engagement in the world: Sociocultural perspectives (pp.148-170), UK: Cambridge University Press.

Haight, W.L., Parke, R.D., Black, J.E. (1997). Mothers’ and fathers’ beliefs about and spontaneous participation in their toddlers’ pretend play. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 43 (2), 271-290.

Hakkarainen, P., Bredikyte, M., Jakkula, K., & Munter, H. (2013). Adult play guidance and children's play development in a narrative play-world. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 21(2), 213-225.

Hofferth, S.L. (2010). Home media and children’s achievement and behavior. Child Development, 81(5), 1598-1619.

Hughes, F. P. (2010). Children, play, and development (4th edt.). California: Sage Publications.

Incesu C., Acar A., & Kazmirci T. V. (2006). Cinsellikle ilgili değerler. Cinsel Sağlık ve Üreme Sağlığı Araştırması. İstanbul: Cinsel Eğitim Tedavi ve Araştırma Derneği (CETAD) Yayını.

İvrendi, A. & Işıkoğlu, N. (2010). A Turkish view on fathers’ involvement in children’s play. Early Childhood Education Journal, 37 (6), 519–526.

Jeynes, W. H. 2007. “The relationship between parental involvement and urban secondary school student academic achievement: A meta-analysis”. Urban education, 42(1), 82-110.

Kağıtçıbaşı, Ç. & Ataca, B. (2005). Value of children and family change: A three‐decade portrait from Turkey. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 54 (3), 317-337.

Kaya-Bican, E., & Sarıtas-Atalar, D. (2017). Ana babaların duygu sosyalleştirme uygulamaları ve erken çocukluk döneminde duygusal ve sosyal gelişim. Ankara Universitesi DTCF Dergisi, 57 (2): 1365-1388.

Kojima, H. (1996). Japanese childrearing advice in its cultural, social, and economic contexts. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 19 (2), 373-392.

Kuczaj II, S. A., & Horback, K. M. (2012). Play and Emotion. In S. Watanabe, S. Kuczaj (Eds.) Emotions of Animals and Humans: Comparative Perspectives, (pp. 87–112). Japan: Springer.

LaFreniere, P. (2011). Evolutionary functions of social play: Life histories, sex differences, and emotion regulation. American Journal of Play, 3 (4), 464–488.

Lee, B. (1989). Intellectual origins of Vygotsky’s semiotic analysis. In J.Wertsch (Eds.) Culture communication and cognition: Vygotskian perspectives. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Lillard, A. S. (2015). The development of play. In R.Lerner, L.Liben, U.Mueller (Eds), Handbook of child psychology and developmental science (pp1-44). John Wiley & Sons

Lindberg, N. (2012). Changes in child’s play over two generations. International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 4 (2), 1-16.

Lindsey, E. W., & Colwell, M. J. (2013). Pretend and physical play: Links to preschoolers’ affective social competence. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 59, 330–360. https://doi.org/cgcx.

Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook (2nd ed.). California,USA: Sage Publications.

Mouritsen, F. (1998). Child Culture/Play Culture. Retrieved November 18, 2007 from http://www.hum.sdu.dk/center/kultur/arb_pap/

Oguz, O. & Ersoy, P. (2005). Living Turkish traditional child games in 2004. Ankara: Gazi University Turkish Folklore Research and Practice Centre.

Onur, B. (2005). Türkiye’de çocukluğun tarihi. Ankara: İmge Yayınevi.

Öksüz, M., & Önal, Ü. (2011). Artvin Yöresi Çocuk Oyunları ve Oyuncakları. Günümüzde Çocuk Oyunlarında ve Oyuncaklarında Yaşanan Değişimler Sempozyumu Bildiriler Kitabı (pp.143-159). Ankara: KTB Yayınları.

Özyürek, A., Şahin, F. T., & Gündüz, Z. B. (2018). Nesilden Nesile Kültürel Aktarımda Oyun ve Oyuncakların Rolü. Çukurova Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 27(1), 1-12.

Pellegrini A.D. (2009). The role of play in human development. NY: Oxford University Press.

Pirpir, D.A., Er,R., & Koçak, N.(2009). Comparison of attitudes of parents having children in early childhood period related to play. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1, 933–938.

Rettig, M. A. (2002). Cultural diversity and play from an ecological perspective. Children & Schools, 24(3), 189-199.

Rubin, K. H., Fein, G. G., & Vandenberg, B. (1983). Play. In E. M. Hetherington (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology, Vol. 4 (pp. 693–774). NY: Wiley.

Seçer, Z., & Karabulut, N. (2016). Anne-babaların duygusal sosyalleştirme davranışları ile okul öncesi çocukların sosyal becerilerinin analizi. Eğitim ve Bilim, 41(185), 147-165.

Sutton Smith, B., Rosenberg, B.G. (1961). Sixty years of historical change in the game preferences of American Children. The Journal of American Folklore, 74 (291), 17-46

Talwar V. (2011). Moral behavior. In Goldstein S., Naglieri J.A. (Eds) Encyclopedia of Child Behavior and Development. Boston, MA: Springer.

Tizard, B., & Hughes, M. (2002). Young children learning (2nd Ed). UK: Blackwell Publishing

Triandis, H. C. (2001). Individualism‐collectivism and personality. Journal of personality, 69 (6), 907-924.

Tuğrul, B., & Artan, İ. (2001). Çocukların cinsel eğitimi ile ilgili anne görüşlerinin incelenmesi. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 20, 141-149.

Turkish Statistical Institute (TSI). (2018). Population statistic. URL: http://www.turkstat.gov.tr/UstMenu.do?metod=temelist

Van Rheenen, D. (2012). A century of historical change in the game preferences of American children. The Journal of American Folklore, 125 (498), 411-443.

Vandermaas-Peeler, M. (2002). Cultural Variations in Parental Support of Children's Play. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 6(1). https://doi.org/10.9707/2307-0919.1054

Veiga, G., Neto, C., & Rieffe, C. (2016). Preschoolers’ free play - connections with emotional and social functioning. The International Journal of Emotional Education. 8 (1), 48-62.

Wertsch, J. (1997). Vygotsky and the social formation of mind. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Yoffie, L.R.C. (1947). Three generations of children’s singing games in St.Louis. Journal of American Folklore, 60, 1-51.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7596/taksad.v9i4.2696

Refback'ler

  • Şu halde refbacks yoktur.




Telif Hakkı (c) 2020 Journal of History Culture and Art Research

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.