Emerging the Concept of Islamic Socialism in Pakistan: Historical Analysis on Political Debates of 1970-1971 Election Campaign


  • Rafi Raza Sanghro The University of Northampton, England
  • Jalil Ahmed Chandio




Socialism, Islamic Socialism, Two-Nation Theory, Political Islam, Sharia, Pakistan.


Islamic Socialism was the concept propounded by Mr. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto during the 1970-71 general election campaign. This ideology was new to Pakistani state as the country was founded on the concept of the Two Nation Theory. Mr. Bhutto's ideology in Pakistan was viewed as against the basic concept of the religion (Islam) by the Islamists parties. The Jamaat-e-Islami (JI) was the main political opponent of his ideology. Mr. Bhutto believed that the socio-economic condition of the country was deteriorated and this new ideology will infuse a better life for everyone in the country. On the other hand, the Amir (chief) of the JI, Maulana Maudoodi, believed it as an atheist ideology and would diminish Islam from Pakistan. This paper is designed to investigate why political elites envisaged such ideology i.e. Islamic Socialism, in 1970 election? Whether this new ideology changed economic conditions of the common man as was envisaged or further worsened the political situation in the country? Further, the paper will investigate what role religious parties played particularly the JI, in countering the Islamic Socialism ideology which it was believed as atheist ideology?

Author Biography

Rafi Raza Sanghro, The University of Northampton, England

Asst. Prof. Pakistan Studies, Shah Abdul Latif University Khairpur, Sindh Pakistan

PhD Scholar at University of Northampton, UK.


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How to Cite

Sanghro, R. R., & Chandio, J. A. (2019). Emerging the Concept of Islamic Socialism in Pakistan: Historical Analysis on Political Debates of 1970-1971 Election Campaign. Journal of History Culture and Art Research, 8(2), 51-61. https://doi.org/10.7596/taksad.v8i2.2042