Malezya’da Din-Devlet İlişkisine Kısa Bir Bakış / A Short Overview of the Relationship between Religion and State in Malaysia

Mehmet Özay

Özet


Abstract

Starting from the second half of the 1960s onwards, socio-religious youth movements, which are regarded as the initial element of civil expressions on university campuses, were constructively influential on the perception of the political elites’ understanding of Islam and political evolution of the Islamisation policies in the process in Malaysia. There are opinions that this effect encompassed the efforts of Islamisation particularly in the 1980s. In this process, the task of the state apparatus, as a political power, which managed the religious domain mostly considered belonging to the civil sector, deserves to be scrutinized in relation with at least some influential factors in the near and distant past of the Muslim Malay community. And, it cannot be overseen that the functions of the traditional Malay rulers, say, Sultans, were transferred, to some or larger extent, to the Federal government after the independence. With regard to this, in this article, the present writer will focus on some aspects of the policies of Dr. Mahathir Mohamad, who has molded majorily the history of modern Malaysia, regarding his Islamisation policy aligned with the state-religion relationship.

Öz

Malezya’da 1960’lı yılların ikinci yarısından itibaren üniversite kampüslerinde başlayan ve sivilleşmenin bir unsuru olarak telâkki edilen dini-toplumsal hareketlerin İslam’ın ülke siyasi elitince algılanmasında ve pratikte İslamlaştırma adıyla anılabilecek politikalara evrilmesinde önemli etkisi olmuştur. Bu etkinin, özellikle 1980’li yıllarda devlet eliyle İslamlaştırma çabalarına yol açtığı konusunda görüşler bulunmaktadır. Bu süreçte, yani devletin siyasi bir güç olarak sivil alana dahil olan dini çekip çevirme işini üstlenmesinde, özellikle Müslüman Malay toplumunun yakın ve uzak geçmişindeki kimi faktörler dikkate alınmayı hak etmektedir. Bu bağlamda, geleneksel Malay devletlerinde Sultanların sahip oldukları işlevlerin bağımsızlık sonrasında Federal yönetime bir tür devri olarak değerlendirilebilecek ilişki göz ardı edilmemelidir. Bu çerçevede, modern Malezya tarihinde bıraktığı izler nedeniyle, din-devlet ilişkisi bağlamında yaşananların odağında yer alan Dr. Mahathir Muhammed’in 22 yıllık iktidarındaki icraatlar kısaca ele alınacaktır.

Un bref aperçu de la relation entre la religion et le gouvernement : les politiques de l’islamisation de l’époque de Mahathir Mohamad et ses implications Résumé Les mouvements socio-religieux dans les campus universitaires en Malaisie depuis la seconde moitié des années 1960 ont eu une influence considérable à propos de la perception de l’Islam par les élites politiques du pays et du commencement de la réalisation des politiques de l’islamisation. Il existe même des opinions qui défendent l’idée que cette influence était en particulier à la base de l’islamisation du pays par l’Etat dans les années 1980. Pour comprendre le processus de la prise en charge de l’Etat des affaires de la Religion, devenu maintenant une force politique dans la sphère publique, il convient de voir, en particulier, certaines caractéristiques dans les temps passé et présent de la communauté musulmane malaise. Dans ce contexte, il ne faut pas oublier le transfert des fonctions des sultans des états traditionnels malais au Gouvernement fédéral après l’indépendance. Dans cette étude, on va aborder en bref les politiques de l’époque de Dr. Mahathir Muhammed, au pouvoir pendant 22 ans, et qui était au centre des affaires au sujet de la relation entre la religion et l’état de cette période, car cette période a marqué l’histoire du pays.


Anahtar Kelimeler


Malaysia, Islamization policies, Islamic education, Dr. Mahathir Mohamad. Malezya, İslamlaştırma politikaları, İslami eğitim, Dr. Mahathir Mohamad, Malaisie, les politiques d’islamisation, l’éducation islamique, Dr. Mahathir Mohamad.

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