From Oral Epic to the Written One: on One Type of Formulae in P. A. Oyunsky’s Olonkho “Nyurgun Bootur the Swift”

Nadezhda Volodarovna Pokatilova, Nadezhda Anatolyevna Orosina

Özet


Typology of differentiation between oral and literary eposes developed according to different traditions and was based on a variety of materials (M. Parry, A. Lord, A.N. Veselovsky, V.M. Zhirmunsky, M.I. Steblin-Kamensky, E.M. Meletinsky and others). Formulaicity remains one of the indicators of similarities and distinctions between the two types of epos – oral and written. The term was introduced by M. Parry and A. Lord; however, the problem of the nature and characteristics of formulaicity remains arguable under traditions which vary in their origins.

Olonkho by one of the first Yakut authors, P.A. Oyunsky allows one to trace the process of creation and producing of formulae within the space of an epic text of written origin. The author’s epos includes the types of formulae in which narrator’s personal name becomes a key element in not only creating alliteration, but also for unfolding the poetic meaning of the entire epic phrase. The analysis shown in the article indicates that despite the similarity in structure, each time the formula re-creates characteristic feature of a certain narrator’s performance. This is an evidence of the name formulae of the type considered here being the symbol of the rising outside (“outside” of the culture) outlook from the writer on formulaicity in oral tradition. It is also shown that a written-origin epos is also characterized by formulaicity while the rules and mechanisms of its producing visibly differ from formulaicity of oral epos. The type of formulae considered presents author’s poetic expression of their attitude to the preceding tradition of narrating. These formulae also allow (within their limits) a reconstruction of the epic environment. It is concluded that the distinction of the naming formula is not only limited to alliterating narrator’s personal name. It also gives meaning to a trope (periphrasis, metaphor, simile) linked to the characteristics of narrator’s unique manner.


Anahtar Kelimeler


Oral tradition, Written tradition, Oral epos, Literary epos, Yakut epos olonkho, Narrator of folk Tales, Oral theory, Poetic diction, Oral formula, Formulaic language, Alliteration, Verse metrics.

Tam Metin:

PDF (English)

Referanslar


Androsov, E. D. (2003). Desire to live. Yakutsk: Bichik. (In Yakut language)

Androsov, E. D. (2006). Olonkhosuts of the Taata region. Ytyk-Kuel: “Taatta” newspaper editorial. (in Yakut language)

Bogatyrev, P. G. & Jakobson R. O. (1971). Folklore as a unique form of creativity. Bogatyrev P.G. Issues of the theory of folk art. Moscow: Iskusstvo, 269-383.

Grammar of modern Yakut literary language. Phonetics and Morphology (1982). Moskow: Nauka.

Landmarks of literary epic. Style and typological characteristics. (1978). (edited by P. A. Grintser, E. M. Meletinsky, S. Y. Neklyudov, B. L. Riftin). Moscow: Nauka.

Lord A. B. (1994). The singer of tales (translated from English and comments by Y.A. Kleyner and G.A. Levinton; afterword by B. N. Putilov; articles by A. I. Zaitsev, Y. A. Kleyner). Moscow: Vostochnaia literatura RAS.

Meletinsky, E. M. (1968). “Edda” and early forms of epos. Series “Studies in the theory and history of epos”. Moscow: Nauka.

Meletinsky, E. M. (1979). Paleo-Asian mythological epos (the Raven cycle). Moscow: Nauka.

Meletinsky, E. M. (1998b). On the ancient type of hero in the epos of the Siberian Turkic-Mongolian peoples. Selected articles. Memoirs. Moscow: RGGU, 360-381.

Meletinsky, E. M. (1998а). “Common places” and other elements of folk style and Eddic verse. Meletinsky E. M. Selected articles. Memoirs. Moscow: RGGU, 382-400.

Meletinsky, E. M. (2004). Origins of heroic epos: Early forms and archaic landmarks. 2nd edition. Moscow: Vostochnaia literature.

Meletinsky, E. M.; Neklyudov, S. Y. & Novik, E. S. (2010). Historical poetics of folklore: from archaic to classics. Moscow: RGGU.

Nagy, G. (2002). Formula and meter: Homer and poetics of oral epos. Greek mythology and poetics (translated from English by N.P. Grintser). Moscow: Progress – Tradicia.

Orosina, N. A. (2015). Influence of epic environment on the works of P.A. Oyunsky (on the materials from the olonkho “Djuluruyar Nyurgun Bootur”). P.A. Oyunsky: researcher, writer, statesman: Proceedings of the regional conference (November 25-26, 2013). Yakutsk: Publishing house of SB RAS Institute of the Humanities Research and Indigenous Studies of the North, 227-235.

Orosina, N. A. (2015). Tatta region local tradition of the Yakut epos olonkho: forms presence, key imagery and motives: Author’s abstract of thesis for a Candidate Degree in Philological Sciences. Yakutsk: Publishing house of SB RAS Institute of the Humanities Research and Indigenous Studies of the North.

Oyunsky, P. A. (1959). Collection of writings: in 7 volumes. V.4. Yakutsk: Yakut publishing house.

Oyunsky, P. A. (1975). Nyurgun Bootur the Swift: Yakut heroic epos – olonkho (translated by V.V. Derzhavin). Yakutsk: Yakut publishing house.

Oyunsky, P. A.: Articles and memoirs (1893-1968) (1969). Yakutsk: Yakut publishing house.

Pokatilova, N. V. (1999). Yakut alliterative poetry: Genesis of literary text. Moscow: AIYYNA.

Pokatilova, N. V. (2015). Literary works of P.A. Oyunsky in the context of changing paradigms of the 20th century. P.A. Oyunsky: researcher, writer, statesman: Proceedings of the regional conference (November 25-26, 2013). Yakutsk: Publishing house of SB RAS Institute of the Humanities Research and Indigenous Studies of the North, 99-104.

Savvin, V. A. (1969). A great friend of the theater. Oyunsky P.A.: Articles and memoirs (1893-1968). Yakutsk: Yakut publishing house, 118-127.

Sleptsov, K. A. (2003). Bylatyan oho erdehine (“Planton’s childhood years”). Min aatym aattanya (P.A. Oyunskay tuhunan akhtyylar) (“My name will be heard” (“Memories of P.A. Oyunsky”)). Compiled by I.E. Fedoseyev, S. P. Oyunskaya. Yakutsk: SB RAS. Yakutsk Branch, 193-196). (In Yakut language).

Smirnitskaya, O. A. (1994). Verse and language of Old-Germanic poetry. Moscow: Filologiia. Vol. 1.

Steblin-Kamensky, M. I. (1978). Historical poetics. Leningrad: Nauka.

Veselovsky, A. N. (2007). Historical poetics: introductory notes and notes by V.M. Zhirmunsky. 3rd edition. Moscow: URSS.

Zhirmunsky, V. M. (1962). Heroic folk epos: Comparative-historical essays. Leningrad: Goslitizdat.

Zhirmunsky, V. M. (1968). On certain issues of the theory of Turkic folk verse. Issues of Linguistics, 1.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7596/taksad.v7i3.1727

Refback'ler

  • Şu halde refbacks yoktur.




Telif Hakkı (c) 2018 Journal of History Culture and Art Research

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.