İhtidanın Bedeli: Etiyopya Kralı Iyasu Örneği (1913-1916) / The Price of the Conversion to Islam: The Case of Iyasu, the King of Ethiopia (1913-1916)

Ibsa Ahmed Hassen, Seyfettin Erşahin

Özet


Abstract

The reign of Lij Iyasu was one of the most controversial periods in the history of Ethiopia. Iyasu came to power because of an absence of a direct male line from the reigning King, Menelik (1889-1913). He was the product of the crisis of the last quarter of the 19th century. He was the son of Michael, the ex-Muslim, who was converted to Christianity by force after the council of Boru Meda in 1878. He was the descendant of the two largest ethnic groups in the country, the Oromo, and Amhara. His background was helpful to stop the creeping inequality developing in the country at that time, however; it was the same background that contributed to the demise of Iyasu. He was also involved in the politics of the First World War. He had a good relationship with the Ottoman and the Somali nationalist, Sayyid Abdalle Hassen. His relation to the Ottoman and conversion to Islam irritated the European powers. Those factors contributed greatly to his downfall. This article will put light on the period of Lij Iyasu including the question of his conversion to Islam and political events based on available oral and written sources.

Öz

Lic Iyasu’nun dönemi (1913-1916) Etiyopya tarihinin en tartışmalı dönemlerinden birisidir. Iyasu, hükümdar olan Kral Menelik’in (1889-1913) bir erkek evladı olmaması sebebiyle iktidar şansını elde etti. Bu sebeple de kendisi 19. yüzyılın son çeyreğindeki Etiyopya kraliyetindeki taht krizinin bir parçası oldu. Iyasu, daha önceden Müslüman iken 1878 yılındaki Boru Meda Konseyi’nden sonra zorla Hristiyanlığa geçirilen Michael’in oğluydu. Iyasu, ülkedeki en büyük iki etnik grup olan Oromoların ve Amharaların soyundan geliyordu. Kökeni, bir yandan o zamanlar ülkede büyümekte olan eşitsizliği durdurması için yardımcı olurken, bir yandan da tahttan indirilmesine sebep olmuştu. Iyasu aynı zamanda Birinci Dünya Savaşı’na da siyaseten müdahil olmuştu. Osmanlılarla ve Somalili milliyetçi Seyyid Abdallah Hassan ile iyi ilişkileri vardı. Bu durum Avrupalı güçler için son derece rahatsız edici bir durumdu. Iyasu’nun bu teşebbüslerini etkisiz kılmak için Avrupalı güçler, Iyasu karşıtı Etiyopyalı yerel güçlere destek vererek onu tahttan indirdiler. Bu makale, sözlü ve yazılı kaynaklara dayanarak Iyasu’nun İslamiyet’e geçişi dâhil olmak üzere, dönemin siyasi olaylarına ve yönetimine ışık tutmayı amaçlamaktadır.


Anahtar Kelimeler


Lic Iyasu, Lidj Yassou, Etiyopyalı Müslüman, Evlilik ittifakı, Osmanlı İmparatorluğu, İhtida, Mazhar Bey; Lij Iyasu, Muslim of Ethiopia, Marriage Alliance, the Ottoman Empire, Mazhar Bey, Conversion to Islam.

Tam Metin:

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7596/taksad.v7i1.1429

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