The Presence of the Private Sector in Criminal Justice Enforcement and Its Comparative Study in the Criminal Laws of Iran and the USA
Keywords:Private sector, Prison, Private police, Criminal justice, Religious jurisprudence.
From 1980 onwards, the privatization under the influence of the neoliberal politics supremacy in the world entered the criminal justice arena as well. In that year, the government and the private sector entered into conventions that mandated the collaboration of the private sector in the process of punishment and to undertake the criminal justice services. The political groups which agreed with the privatization at national levels started to expand the privatization as they came to power and the criminal justice apparatus was no exception to the rule. A higher incarceration rate was an inevitable outcome of the increase in the severity of the punishment and the increasing number of violations that carried a prison sentence. In the field of penalty enforcement, the private companies can build jails very rapidly and cheaply. The presence of the private sector in the implementation of criminal justice from the viewpoint of Iran’s law can be investigated from two perspectives. First, in terms of religious jurisprudence approach to the subject and second, from the viewpoint of the relevant rights.
Bolek, Bernard (2006). Criminology, trans. Ali Hossein Najafi Abrandabadi, 5th revision, (6th edition). Majd.
Flanagan, Timothy J. (1991). Private Prisons: Cons and Pros. Contemporary Sociology, 20(4).
Guimond, David (1998). Prisons of Industry: the recent history of American private Prisons 1978-1985. Ottowa: University of Ottawa.
Khoi, Abolghasem (2008). Mabani Takamalohalmenhaj, Vol.1. Imam Khoi Institute.
Kuson, Morris (2003). The Transformation of the Prison in the United States, trans. Ghasem Ghassemi. Justice Department Legal Journal, 42.
Lippke, Richard L. (1997). Thinking About private prisons. Journal of Criminal Justice ethics, 16.
Mathews, Roger & Francis, Peter (2002). Prisons in the Third Millennium, trans. Leyla Akbari. Tehran: Rahotarbiat Publ.
Mcdonald, Douglas C. (1992). Private Penal Institutions. Crime and Justice, 16. The University Of Chicago Press.
Mir Khalili, Seyed Mahmood (2009). The VAZEE Prevention of the Crime with a Glance at Islamic Criminal Policy. Culture and Thought Research Institute.
Najafi Abrandabadi, Ali Hossein (2005). Conduction of Criminal Sociology Course. Shahid Beheshti University.
Rasouli, Reza (2005). The Change and Development of Penal Policies in the Process of Globalization. Iran Sociology Journal, 6(1).
Saney, Parviz (2003). General Criminal Law. Tehran: Tarhno.
Shams, Ali (2002). The Plan for Establishment of Private Prisons in Iran. The prisons organization educational & research center.
Stewart, Ames K. (1985). Public Safety and Private Police. Public Administration Review, 45, special issue: Law and public Affairs.
Walker, Edward T. (2007). The Privatization of Political Influence: Professional Grassroots Lobbying in the United States. The Pennsylvania State University.
How to Cite
LicenseAll papers licensed under Creative Commons 4.0 CC-BY.
- Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format
- Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially.
Under the following terms:
- No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.