Protestantism as the Guarantee of National Liberty in the Eighteenth-Century Britain

Pervin Yigit, Seyit Özkutlu

Özet


In eighteenth-century, Britain was experiencing success in international arena, increase in economic conditions, improvement in education and developments in arts and sciences. However, especially the advance in natural sciences and the growing popularity of rationalism harmed the political, social and psychological power of religion during the aforementioned period. Due to the religious controversies, Protestant principles lost their crucial role in maintaining the political and social order in Great Britain. Besides internal threats, the country had experienced external threats –such as France- as well. The peril of France was also considered as a direct threat of Catholicism to the Anglican Church. Therefore, the Anglican Church needed to be defended against both the internal and external threats. As a result, the church was re-established as the basis of political and moral order by the attempts of Anglican thinkers and religious men. In order to show how Anglicans had promoted their religious principles, the works of John Brown (1715-1766) -one of the most influential religious men of the period- were analysed. The controversy between Protestantism and Catholicism, namely between Great Britain and France, led Brown to use Protestantism as the basis of English liberty and attack to Catholicism by means of the concept of “liberty” provided by Protestant principles. At this point Brown defended Anglicanism and indicate Anglican’s opposition to Catholicism in terms of liberty. The aim of this paper is to reveal how the concept of ‘liberty’ and Protestantism were used together in order to preserve the commonwealth in Great Britain. In addition, how the concept of liberty changed in John Brown’s works after the threat of Catholicism and became a social concept in the English Enlightenment is also examined.


Anahtar Kelimeler


Eighteenth century, English Enlightenment, Anglican Church, Religion, Freedom, Rationalism.

Tam Metin:

PDF (English)

Referanslar


Anderson, Robert (1795). Works of the British Poets. With Prefaces, Biographical and Critical, v. X, London, Printed for John & Arthur Arch.

Anonymous (1715). The Necessity of Peace and Union Among the Members of the Church of England, London, Printed for J. Baker.

Bolingbroke, Henry St. John, Viscount (1749). “On the Spirit of Patriotism” in Letters on the Spirit of Patriotism: On the Idea of a Patriot King and on the State of Parties at the Accession of King George the First, Dublin, Printed for A. Millar.

Bolingbroke, Henry St. John, Viscount (1752). “Concerning the true use and advantages of it” in Letters on the Study and Use of History, v.I., London, Printed for A. Millar.

Bolingbroke, Henry St. John, Viscount (1754). The Philosophical Works of the Late Honourable Henry St. John, Lord Viscount Bolingbroke, v. IV, London.

Brown, John (1743). Honour: A Poem, London, Printed for R. Dodsley.

Brown, John (1745). An Essay on Satire: Occasion’d by the Death of Mr. Pope, London, Printed for R. Dodsley.

Brown, John (1746). The Mutual Connexion between Religious Truth and Civil Freedom; between Superstition, Tyranny, Irreligion, and Licentiousness, London, Printed for R. Dodsley.

Brown, John (1749). On Liberty: A Poem, London, Printed for C. Davis.

Brown, John (1750). On the Pursuit of False Pleasure, London, Printed for James Leake.

Brown, John (1751). Essays on the Characteristics, London, Printed for C. Davis and C. Reymers.

Brown, John (1753). On the Use and Abuse of Externals in Religion, London, Printed for C. Davis.

Brown, John (1756). Athelstan: A Tragedy, London, Printed for C. Davis and C. Reymers.

Brown, John (1757). An Estimate of The Manners and Principles of The Time, London, Printed for C. Davis and C. Reymers.

Brown, John (1757). An Estimate of the Manners and Principles of the Times, Vol. II, London.

Brown, John (1758). An Explanatory Defence of The Estimate of The Manners and Principles of The Times, London, Printed for C. Davis and C. Reymers.

Brown, John (1764). Sermons on Various Subjects, London, Printed for C. Davis and C. Reymers.

Clarke, William & Mackenzie, Robert Shelton (2017). The Georgian Era: Memoirs of the Most Eminent Persons, who have flourished in Great Britain (1832-34), London, Forgotten Books (FB & c Ltd.).

Cooper, Anthony Ashley (1732). Third Earl of Shaftesbury. Characteristicks of Men, Manners, Opinions, Times 5th edition, London, Printed for J. J. Tourneisen.

Crimmins, James E. (2004). ‘Brown, John (1715–1766)’, in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, edited by H. C. G. Matthew and Brian Harrison, Oxford University Press.

Erskine-Hill, Howard (2004). “Pope, Alexander (1688–1744)”, in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, edited by H. C. G. Matthew and Brian Harrison, Oxford University Press.

Hume, David (1748). “Of Practical Consequences of Natural Religion” in Philosophical Essays Concerning Human Understanding, London, Printed for A. Millar.

Hume, David (1748). “Of Liberty and Necessity” in Philosophical Essays Concerning Human Understanding, London, Printed for A. Millar.

Locke, John (1740). A Letter Concerning Toleration, London, Printed for A. Churchill.

O’Gorman, Frank (1997). The Long Eighteenth Century British Political and Social History 1688-1832, Oxford University Press.

Plummer, Alfred (1910). The Church of England in the Eighteenth Century, London, Methuen.

Sykes, Norman (1926). Edmund Gibson, Bishop of London, 1669- 1748: a study in politics and religion in the eighteenth century, Oxford University Press.

Sykes, Norman (1934). Church and State in England in the eighteenth century, Cambridge University Press.

Toland, John (1702). Christianity, not Mysterious: or, a TREATISE Showing, that there is nothing in the GOSPEL Contrary to REASON, Nor above it: And that no Christian Doctrine can be properly call’d a MYSTERY, London, Printed for S. Buckley.

Walsh, J. & Taylor, S. (1993). “Introduction: the Church and Anglicanism in the ‘long’ eighteenth century” in The Church of England 1689-1833: from toleration to Tractarianism, edited by John Walsh, Colin Haydon and Stephen Taylor, Cambridge University Press.

Warburton, William (1738). “Dedication” in The Divine Legation of Moses Demonstrated on the Principles of a Religious Deist, London, Printed for F. Gyles.

Warburton, William (1809). Letters from a late eminent prelate to one of his friends, USA, Printed for T. Cadell and W. Davies.

Wykes, David, L. (1996). “The Contribution of the Dissenting Academy to the emergence of Rational Dissent” in Enlightenment and Religion- Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain, edited by Knud Haakonssen, Cambridge University Press.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7596/taksad.v6i6.1284

Refback'ler

  • Şu halde refbacks yoktur.




Telif Hakkı (c) 2017 Journal of History Culture and Art Research

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.