John Brown as an Independent Character from Warburton Circle / Warburton Camiası’ndan Bağımsız Bir Karakter Olarak John Brown

Pervin Yigit

Özet


Abstract

John Brown (1715-1766) and William Warburton (1698-1779) were two leading characters of the English Enlightenment. The enlightenment associated with their works could provide a political, social and intellectual situation of eighteenth century Britain. Therefore, they are worthy of attention. Britain became a trans-oceanic commercial and colonial power in the first half of the century and thus the growth of commercial society and empire changed the character of the nation. Warburton’s works were presenting a complicated programme for reform. Warburton and also his party (Warburton circle) aimed to preserve the Great Britain from the effects of intolerance, superstition, religious enthusiasm and religious division. They aimed to maintain the Anglican establishment. Brown who was considered as a loyal member of Warburton circle, regardless their fall out later, introduced reform strategies for the eighteenth century Britain like other members. In this paper it is indicated that Brown was developing a different reform agenda to that of William Warburton. I argue that the Brown’s main work “An Estimate of the Manners and Principles of The Times” (1757) can actually be read as a refutation of Warburton’s thoughts and of the reform strategies developed by members of his circle and thus Brown need to be considered as a self-directed political reformist.

 

Öz

John Brown (1715-1766) ve William Warburton (1698-1779) İngiliz Aydınlaması’nın en önemli karakterlerindendir. Her ikisinin de yapıtları 18. yüzyıl İngilteresi’nin siyasi, sosyal ve entellektüel durumunu ve dolayısı ile İngiliz Aydınlanması’nı bize gösterdikleri için, çalışmaya değerdir. Britanya 18. yüzyılın ilk yarısında okyanus aşırı ticari bir güç ve bir sömürge imparatorluğu olduğu için, ulusun karakteri değişikliğe uğramıştır. Bu sebepten Warburton, eserleri aracılığı ile İngiltere için ulusal bir reform program sunar. O ve onun akımını takip edenler (Warburton camiası) Büyük Britanya’yı hoşgörüsüzlük, batıl inanç, dini  fanatizm ve dinsel uzlaşmazlığın etkilerinden korumayı ve Anglikan düzeni korumayı amaçlarlar. Warburton camiası’nın sadık bir üyesi olan Brown, sonradan bu camiadan ayrılmış olsa da Warburton’u takip eden diğer bireyler gibi dönemin İngilteresi için reform stratejileri önermiştir. Bu çalışmada, Brown’un Warburton’dan daha farklı bir reform program sunduğu gösterilmiştir. İddiam şudur ki, Brown’un esas çalışması olan “Dönemin İlke ve Davranışlarına Dair bir Tahmin- An Estimate of the Manners and Principles of The Times (1757) adlı eseri Warburton’un ve onun camiasının düşüncelerini ve reform programlarını çürütme niteliğinde bir yazı olarak okunabilir. Bu yüzden Brown bağımsız bir siyasi reformist olarak değerlendirilmelidir. 


Anahtar Kelimeler


John Brown, 18. Yüzyıl, İngiliz aydınlanması, Warburton camiası, Reform planları; John Brown, Eighteenth-century, English enlightenment, Warburton circle, Reform strategies.

Tam Metin:

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Referanslar


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7596/taksad.v6i4.1037

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